File Name: malaria symptoms and treatment .zip
Malaria is caused by a parasite called Plasmodium. There are 5 species of Plasmodium which infect humans:. It can be rapidly fatal. Pregnant women and children are especially at risk. Other types of malaria are less severe, but still may cause death. The parasite is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected female Anopheles species mosquitoes. The parasites multiply in the liver and the bloodstream of the infected person.
The parasite may be taken up by another mosquito when it bites an infected person. The mosquito is then infected for the duration of its life and can infect other humans when it bites them. Occasionally malaria is transmitted by blood transfusion.
For this reason, people who have travelled to countries where malaria occurs may be deferred from giving blood for a short period.
Malaria can also be transmitted from a mother to her fetus. Over , people living in these countries die from malaria each year. Many thousands of tourists also get malaria during their travels to countries where malaria is present. Tourists often get severe illness because they have had no previous exposure to malaria and have no resistance to the disease. Plasmodium falciparum may cause cerebral malaria, a serious complication resulting from inflammation of the brain that may cause coma.
Diagnosis is made by a blood test — sometimes it is necessary to repeat the test a number of times, as the parasites can be difficult to detect. These periods are approximate and may be longer if the person has been taking drugs taken to prevent infection. A person remains infectious to mosquitoes as long as the parasites are present in the blood. This may be several years if adequate treatment is not given. Parasites disappear from the blood within a few days of commencing appropriate treatment.
Mosquitoes remain infected for life. Specific antimalarial treatment is available and must always be started as soon as malaria is diagnosed. There is increasing resistance to currently available drugs and treatment should be carried out by an infectious diseases specialist or other expert in the field. Extensive international programs are undertaken in malarious countries to try to control this disease. For travellers, the following advice is given:. These infections or diseases are commonly referred to as 'notifiable conditions'.
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There are 5 species of Plasmodium which infect humans: Plasmodium vivax Plasmodium falciparum Plasmodium malariae Plasmodium ovale Plasmodium knowlesi which is less common. Malaria is a notifiable condition 1 How malaria is spread The parasite is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected female Anopheles species mosquitoes.
Signs and symptoms of malaria Symptoms of malaria may include: fever, which may come and go, or may be constant chills profuse sweating malaise feeling of unwellness muscle and joint pain headache confusion nausea loss of appetite diarrhoea abdominal pain cough anemia.
Incubation period time between becoming infected and developing symptoms Varies with the type: P. Infectious period time during which an infected person can infect others Direct person-to-person spread does not occur. Treatment for malaria Specific antimalarial treatment is available and must always be started as soon as malaria is diagnosed.
Prevention of malaria Exclusion from childcare, preschool, school or work is not necessary but cases should avoid being bitten by mosquitoes while they are unwell.
Travellers to areas with malaria are usually advised to take preventative anti-malarial drugs. There is no vaccine to prevent human infection by this parasite. Personal protection and the environmental management of mosquitoes are important in preventing illness. See Fight the Bite for tips to on how to protect yourself. Travel in countries where there is malaria Extensive international programs are undertaken in malarious countries to try to control this disease.
For travellers, the following advice is given: See a travel medicine expert before you go to get specific advice for the places you will be visiting. Always take malaria prophylaxis drugs exactly as prescribed and take the full course.
Be aware of their potential side effects. Protect yourself from mosquito bites. Travel medical centres have good information on how to do this. Always give your doctor the information about your travel if you become sick. Related information You can search through to find related information. Services Documents Links. You've Got What?
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NCBI Bookshelf. Baron S, editor. Medical Microbiology. James M. Crutcher and Stephen L. Plasmodia are protozoa. Only the species Plasmodium falciparum , P vivax , P malariae, and P ovale are usually infectious for humans.
Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite that gets passed into the bloodstream of humans by the bite of an infected mosquito. Only the Anopheles species of mosquito can transmit malaria, and mosquitoes pick up the parasite from biting a person already infected with the illness. People with malaria typically get very sick and experience a high fever, teeth-rattling chills and muscle aches.
Arch Intern Med. Increasing antimalarial drug resistance and changes in travel patterns may have important implications for the prevention, clinical presentation, and management of this disease.
Malaria is a serious disease which occurs almost exclusively in the tropics and subtropics. It is caused by infection with a parasite called Plasmodium, which is spread through the bite of female mosquitoes that carry it. However, the Eastern Mediterranean, Oceania, and the Americas are also risk areas. The main symptoms of malaria are fever and a flu-like illness. If a person experiences symptoms of malaria after traveling to an affected area see map of affected areas , they should consult a medical practitioner as quickly as possible. Try the Ada app for a free initial symptom assessment.
Malaria is caused by a parasite called Plasmodium. There are 5 species of Plasmodium which infect humans:. It can be rapidly fatal. Pregnant women and children are especially at risk. Other types of malaria are less severe, but still may cause death. The parasite is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected female Anopheles species mosquitoes.
William Stauffer, Philip R. Malaria continues to be a problem for children returning or immigrating to industrialized countries from tropical regions. Proper diagnosis begins with clinical suspicion. In nonimmune children, malaria typically presents with high fever that might be accompanied by chills and headache. Symptoms and signs may be more subtle in partially immune children, and anemia and hepatosplenomegaly may also be present. Thick blood smears help to determine when infection is present, but a single smear without parasites is not sufficient to rule out malaria. Thin blood smears aid in identifying the species of parasite.