File Name: exposure to ideologically diverse news and opinion on facebook .zip
In discussions of news media , an echo chamber refers to situations in which beliefs are amplified or reinforced by communication and repetition inside a closed system and insulated from rebuttal. Echo chambers may increase social and political polarization and extremism.
This research explores the spread of unreliable information on Facebook during the French presidential campaign. By analyzing information-sharing behavior on Facebook pages, our study highlights the wide variety of information sources shared by several political communities, notably news published by partisan websites or activist blogs. Our results focus on the information practices of the far-right, tracing a clear over-representation of sources that are unreliable or likely to relay disinformation. The history of the internet was written not only in scientific and military laboratories but also at the desks of hackers, who injected their own libertarian culture into it. Some authors even viewed this technology as a liberating tool, allowing citizens to experiment with more horizontal modes of social organization Castells , Others, however, emphasized the fact that the internet did not necessarily foster confrontation with opposing points of view and did thus not fulfill this minimal condition for democratic deliberation. This controversy, now fueled by the proliferation of false information circulating within social media, led us to question the effects of these platforms on exposure to political information and polarization of opinions.
There is considerable concern about the role that social media, such as Facebook and Twitter, play in promoting misperceptions during political campaigns. These technologies are widely used, and inaccurate information flowing across them has a high profile. This research uses three-wave panel surveys conducted with representative samples of Americans during both the and U. Presidential elections to assess whether use of social media for political information promoted endorsement of falsehoods about major party candidates or important campaign issues. Fixed effects regression helps ensure that observed effects are not due to individual differences.
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Author contributions: C. We conducted a field experiment that offered a large group of Democrats and Republicans financial compensation to follow bots that retweeted messages by elected officials and opinion leaders with opposing political views. Despite several limitations, this study has important implications for the emerging field of computational social science and ongoing efforts to reduce political polarization online. We surveyed a large sample of Democrats and Republicans who visit Twitter at least three times each week about a range of social policy issues. One week later, we randomly assigned respondents to a treatment condition in which they were offered financial incentives to follow a Twitter bot for 1 month that exposed them to messages from those with opposing political ideologies e. Respondents were resurveyed at the end of the month to measure the effect of this treatment, and at regular intervals throughout the study period to monitor treatment compliance. We find that Republicans who followed a liberal Twitter bot became substantially more conservative posttreatment.
To examine how each of the three mechanisms affect exposure i. E-mail: ebakshy fb. How do these online networks influence exposure to month period between July 7, perspectives that cut across ideological lines? Using de-identified data, we and January 7, We examined how Facebook users interact with socially shared classified stories as either hard news. We directly measured ideological homophily in friend networks, and e.
- И сразу же вернусь. Сьюзан безучастно смотрела, как он направился в шифровалку. Это был уже не тот раздавленный отчаянием человек, каким она видела его десять минут. Коммандер Тревор Стратмор снова стал самим собой - человеком железной логики и самообладания, делающим то, что полагалось делать. Последние слова предсмертной записки Хейла крутились у нее в голове, не повинуясь никаким приказам.
Если ТРАНСТЕКСТ до сих пор не дал ответа, значит, пароль насчитывает не менее десяти миллиардов знаков. Полнейшее безумие. - Это невозможно! - воскликнула она. - Вы проверили сигналы ошибки. Быть может, в ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ какой-нибудь сбой и… - Все в полном порядке.
Он надеялся, что она сядет. Но она этого не сделала. - Сьюзан, сядь.
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To examine how each of the three mechanisms affect exposure i.Reply