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Suspension is the system of tires, tire air, springs , shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels and allows relative motion between the two. The tuning of suspensions involves finding the right compromise. It is important for the suspension to keep the road wheel in contact with the road surface as much as possible, because all the road or ground forces acting on the vehicle do so through the contact patches of the tires. The suspension also protects the vehicle itself and any cargo or luggage from damage and wear. The design of front and rear suspension of a car may be different.
The tires: which are mounted on your vehicle's wheels or rims -are the most important and visible components of the system. They transfer the power of the engine to the ground when your vehicle moves and they counter that motion when it stops. As you drive over a bumpy road, shocks are absorbed by the combined work of a shock absorber or damper , And a coil or leaf spring mounted on each wheel.
The spring is a device that stores energy in order to supply it later on. It is actually the spring that handles the abuse of the road by allowing the wheel to move up and down with respect to the frame of the vehicle. In return, the shock absorber softens the suspension moves entailed by the spring by "absorbing the shocks". The shock absorber is a steel or aluminum hydraulic cylinder filled with oil and pressurized with nitrogen.
As the suspension moves, a piston is forced to move through the oil-filled cylinder. The energy produced from the motion of the piston is dissipated as heat which in turn is absorbed by the oil. The McPherson strut suspension differs from a conventional shock absorber by the way the spring is positioned around the strut. These arms are an integral part of the McPherson strut which has become the most common shock absorber used in recent front wheel-drive vehicles.
Sway bars or anti-roll bars controlbody roll motion during turns. They are made of spring steel and attached between the left and right wheels, at the front and rear of your vehicle.
These bars are designed to keep your vehicle as leveled as possible under all driving conditions. For instance, when the left wheel is forced upon -as you are turning left -the sway bar pushes down on the right wheel counteracting the body roll.
Steel torsion bars are also part of the suspension system. For each wheel, the torsion bar has one end attached to the frame of your vehicle while the other end is attached to the moving suspension of the wheel. Torsion bars act like springs, twisting with varying load forces. The suspension response time with torsion bars is slightly faster than with springs and there is no bouncing effect. Signs of troubles related to the Steering systemThe system allows a driver to use only light forces to steer a heavy car.
The steering effort passes to the wheels through a system of pivoted joints. These are designed to allow the wheels to move up and down with the suspension without changing the steering angle. They also ensure that when cornering, the inner front wheel -which has to travel around a tighter curve than the outer one -becomes more sharply angled. The joints must be adjusted very precisely, and even a little looseness in them makes the steering dangerously sloppy and inaccurate.
There are two steering systems in common use -the rack and pinion and the steering box. On large cars, either system may be power assisted to reduce further the effort needed to move it, especially when the car is moving slowly. The rack-and-pinion system:At the base of the steering column there is a small pinion gear wheel inside a housing. Its teeth mesh with a straight row of teeth on a rack -a long transverse bar. Turning the pinion makes the rack move from side to side.
The ends of the rack are coupled to the road wheels by track rods. This system is simple, with few moving parts to become worn or displaced, so its action is precise. A universal joint in the steering column allows it to connect with the rack without angling the steering wheel awkwardly Sideways.
The steering-box system:At the base of the steering column there is a worm gear inside a box. A worm is a threaded cylinder like a short bolt.
Imagine turning a bolt which holding a nut on it; the nut would move along the bolt. In the same way, turning the worm moves anything fitted into its thread. Depending on the design, the moving part may be a sector like a slice of a gear wheel , a peg or a roller connected to a fork, or a large nut.
The nut system has hardened balls running inside the thread between the worm and the nut. As the nut moves, the balls roll out into a tube that takes them back to the start; it is called a recirculating-ball system. The steering-box system has many moving parts, so is less precise than the rack system, there being more room for wear and displacement.
Power-assisted steering:On a heavy car, either the steering is heavy or it is inconveniently low geared -the steering wheel requiring many turns from lock to lock. Heavy gearing can be troublesome when parking in confined spaces.
Power-assisted steering overcomes the problem. The engine drives a pump that supplies oil under high pressure to the rack or the steering box. Valves in the steering rack or box open whenever the driver turns the wheel, allowing oil into the cylinder. The oil works a piston that helps to push the steering in the appropriate direction. As soon as the driver stops turning the wheel, the valve shuts and the pushing action of the piston stops.
The power only assists the steering -the steering wheel is still linked to the road wheels in the usual way. So, if the power fails, the driver can still steer but the steering becomes much heavier. Related Papers. By Saif Ali. Advanced Vehicle Technology. By Al Emran. Advanced Vehicle Technology 2E. By aaron perez. Download pdf. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.
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Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Deo and N. Deo , N. Suh Published The existing vehicle designs exhibit a high level of coupling.
Your steering system and suspension system are two separate systems that work in tandem to keep your car under control. The suspension system supports the weight of your vehicle, provides a smooth ride and creates stable road control, drivability and handling. The steering system provides directional control of your car. In a way, your steering system selects the direction of the suspension system and the car simply follows along as it is riding atop of the suspension system.
In order for a vehicle to run well, all the parts of each system need to be working together. Arch Auto Parts understands that every part counts which is why it sells OE-quality parts at discount prices. Having OE-quality parts is important because these are the parts best suited for your particular vehicle. If your vehicle has high-quality parts throughout the steering and suspension system, you will have a smoother ride, better handling, and more time until your next repair. The same goes for the braking system.
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Current research into the suspension and steering systems .... 20 Figure First automobile with an ICE, constructed by Karl Benz ars2018.orgReply