File Name: fascism italy and nazi germany comparisons and contrasts .zip
This article explores Benito Mussolini's view on fascism and war. War had an essential place in Mussolini's worldview, even before he came to power in After this, Mussolini showed some realism and opportunism in domestic and foreign policy, but he was first and foremost driven by an ultranationalist, racist, militarist, and Social Darwinist worldview which rested on the fundamental assumption that life is a struggle and war the father of all things.
Fascism , political ideology and mass movement that dominated many parts of central, southern, and eastern Europe between and and that also had adherents in western Europe, the United States , South Africa , Japan , Latin America, and the Middle East.
At the end of World War II , the major European fascist parties were broken up, and in some countries such as Italy and West Germany they were officially banned. Beginning in the late s, however, many fascist-oriented parties and movements were founded in Europe as well as in Latin America and South Africa. The word fascism comes from the Latin fasces , which denotes a bundle of wooden rods that typically included a protruding axe blade.
In ancient Rome , lictors attendants to magistrates would hold the fasces as a symbol of the penal power of their magistrate. The first European fascist, Benito Mussolini , adopted this symbol both to recall the greatness of the Roman Empire and to reinforce his authority as the eventual dictator of Italy. Fascist regimes like his required their citizens to be as unified as the tightly bound fasces.
Fasces as symbols of power and authority were also present throughout the United States and republican France in the 18th and 19th centuries. However, the fasces came to be almost exclusively associated with fascism by the middle of the 20th century.
Although fascism is a notoriously difficult ideology to define, many 20th-century fascist movements shared several characteristics. First, these movements sourced their political strength from populations experiencing economic woes, real or imagined.
Fascists tended to capitalize on these economic anxieties by shifting the blame away from government or market forces. Jews, immigrants, leftists, and other groups became useful scapegoats. Redirecting popular anger toward these people would, in theory, rid a country of its ailments.
To unify a country, fascist movements propagated extreme nationalism that often went hand in hand with militarism and racial purity. A strong, vigilant military was considered necessary to defend these group interests.
Nazism constituted the most insidious form of racial-purist fascist nationalism. Fascist movements of the 20th century also frequently lambasted liberalism for its alleged role in sowing political disunity and moral degeneracy.
Although many fascist movements initially organized themselves around democratic institutions for political legitimacy, they resorted to totalitarianism in practice. The most prominent 20th-century fascist regimes were those in Germany and Italy.
Inflation, soaring unemployment rates, and deep political divisions paralyzed the republic during the Great Depression and helped create the conditions that allowed Nazism to prosper. The Nazis governed Germany beginning in and attempted to spread their ideology through conquest and genocide until their defeat in In the latter half of the 20th century, a resurgent fascism—termed neofascism —gained traction across Europe, Latin America, the Middle East, and South Africa. Like the pre-World War II fascist movements, they were frequently xenophobic, ultranationalist, militaristic, and illiberal.
But important differences emerged from these postwar fascist iterations. Many neofascists placed enormous importance on slowing or stemming immigration, particularly in dense urban areas. They also rebranded themselves as democratic to appeal to a world that had grown rapidly disillusioned with totalitarian regimes. Furthermore, some neofascists sought to align themselves with various economic systems depending on regional politics.
His anti-immigrant, identitarian platform played on fears of French cultural dilution, particularly at the hands of Muslims. In the s, European neofascism surged again following a wave of Muslim migrants after the Arab Spring revolts. She lost to Emmanuel Macron. And in Germany, the anti-Islamic far-right Alternative for Germany became the second most popular party in the Bundestag by In it was larger than the French communist and socialist parties combined one scholar estimated its membership between , and 1.
Several rival protofascist and fascist movements operated in Japan after , and their activities helped to increase the influence of the military on the Japanese government.
In the United States the Ku Klux Klan , a white supremacist organization founded at the end of the Civil War and revived in , displayed some fascist characteristics. One of its offshoots, the Black Legion, had some 60, members in the early s and committed numerous acts of arson and bombing. In Catholic priest Charles E. Coughlin began national radio broadcasts of sermons on political and economic subjects; his talks became increasingly antidemocratic and anti-Semitic, as did the journal he founded, Social Justice.
After running unsuccessfully for the U. In Social Justice was banned from the U. The pro-Nazi German-American Bund , founded in , staged military drills and mass rallies until it disintegrated with the U. Fascism Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Print print Print. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions.
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Life in Hitler's Germany. History File: Opposition If Time. Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. Two authoritarian regimes that fundamentally shaped the first half of the 20th Century were the Fascist government of Benito Mussolini and the Nazi government of Adolf Hitler. In this unit we will examine the rise and rule of each of these dictators and attempt to evaluate to what extent they achieved totalitarian control.
Fascism in Europe was the set of various fascist ideologies which were practiced by governments and political organizations in Europe during the 20th century. Fascism was born in Italy following World War I , and other fascist movements, influenced by Italian Fascism , subsequently emerged across Europe. Among the political doctrines which are identified as ideological origins of fascism in Europe are the combining of a traditional national unity and revolutionary anti-democratic rhetoric which was espoused by the integral nationalist Charles Maurras  and revolutionary syndicalist Georges Sorel  in France. The earliest foundations of fascism in practice can be seen in the Italian Regency of Carnaro ,  led by the Italian nationalist Gabriele D'Annunzio , many of whose politics and aesthetics were subsequently used by Benito Mussolini and his Italian Fasces of Combat which Mussolini had founded as the Fasces of Revolutionary Action in Despite the fact that its members referred to themselves as "fascists", the ideology was based around national syndicalism.
Fascism , political ideology and mass movement that dominated many parts of central, southern, and eastern Europe between and and that also had adherents in western Europe, the United States , South Africa , Japan , Latin America, and the Middle East. At the end of World War II , the major European fascist parties were broken up, and in some countries such as Italy and West Germany they were officially banned. Beginning in the late s, however, many fascist-oriented parties and movements were founded in Europe as well as in Latin America and South Africa. The word fascism comes from the Latin fasces , which denotes a bundle of wooden rods that typically included a protruding axe blade. In ancient Rome , lictors attendants to magistrates would hold the fasces as a symbol of the penal power of their magistrate.
Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany: Comparisons and Contrasts. Edited by Richard Bessel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pp. xiv + $
Attempts to explain Mussolini's adoption of antisemitism as well as the fundamental difference between how Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy ultimately treated the Jews within their respective empires have led some historians to emphasize the contrasting political cultures ofthe two nations and the dynamics of the German-Italian alliance. He emphasizes the primacy of FrenchItalian relations on the one hand and the indigenous Fascist roots of Mussolini's turn to antisemitism on the other. Uncovering additional archival materials concerning Italy's policy of protecting the Jews-both Italian and foreign-within its occupation zone in France, Carpi argues that political concern for the future fate of these territories was key. To assert its sovereignty, the Vichy regime tried to round up and deport theJews; conversely, to symbolize their authority and long-term territorial aspirations, Italians blocked French policy and protected Jews. Humanitarian and moral motivations were aroused by the awareness of the Nazi mass murder of Jewish deportees in the east, but they were ultimately less important than political considerations.
By Dr. It was a far-right form of government which was characterized by extreme nationalism, racial discrimination, promotion of violence and war, gender discrimination against women, and an unapologetic hatred for socialism. Although, there were other fascist regimes and movements in Spain, Croatia, Hungary, and Britain and so on, none of there was as vibrant, feared and influential as Mussolini and Hitler.
- Слово разница особенно важно. Главная разница между Хиросимой и Нагасаки. По-видимому, Танкадо считал, что два эти события чем-то различались между. Выражение лица Фонтейна не изменилось. Но надежда быстро улетучивалась. Похоже, нужно было проанализировать политический фон, на котором разворачивались эти события, сравнить их и перевести это сопоставление в магическое число… и все это за пять минут. ГЛАВА 124 - Атаке подвергся последний щит.
Беккер в отчаянии плюхнулся на скамейку и задумался о том, что делать. Что же предпринять. ГЛАВА 25 Городская больница закрылась для посетителей.
This article explores Benito Mussolini's view on fascism and war.Reply