File Name: types of gears and their uses .zip
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A gear is a rotating circular machine part having cut teeth or, in the case of a cogwheel or gearwheel , inserted teeth called cogs , which mesh with another toothed part to transmit torque. A gear may also be known informally as a cog. Geared devices can change the speed, torque, and direction of a power source. Gears of different sizes produce a change in torque, creating a mechanical advantage , through their gear ratio , and thus may be considered a simple machine.
The rotational speeds , and the torques, of two meshing gears differ in proportion to their diameters. The teeth on the two meshing gears all have the same shape. Two or more meshing gears, working in a sequence, are called a gear train or a transmission.
The gears in a transmission are analogous to the wheels in a crossed, belt pulley system. An advantage of gears is that the teeth of a gear prevent slippage. In transmissions with multiple gear ratios—such as bicycles, motorcycles, and cars—the term "gear" e. The term describes similar devices, even when the gear ratio is continuous rather than discrete, or when the device does not actually contain gears, as in a continuously variable transmission.
Furthermore, a gear can mesh with a linear toothed part, called a rack , producing translation instead of rotation. The earliest preserved gears in Europe were found in the Antikythera mechanism , an example of a very early and intricate geared device, designed to calculate astronomical positions. Its time of construction is now estimated between and BC.
In this context, the meaning of 'toothed wheel in machinery' first attested s; specific mechanical sense of 'parts by which a motor communicates motion' is from ; specifically of a vehicle bicycle, automobile, etc.
A cog is a tooth on a wheel. Historically, cogs were teeth made of wood rather than metal, and a cogwheel technically consisted of a series of wooden gear teeth located around a mortise wheel, each tooth forming a type of specialised 'through' mortise and tenon joint. The wheel can be made of wood, cast iron , or other material. Wooden cogs were formerly used when large metal gears could not be cut, when the cast tooth was not even approximately of the proper shape, or the size of the wheel made manufacture impractical.
The cogs were often made of maple wood. In the Thompson Manufacturing Company of Lancaster, New Hampshire still had a very active business in supplying tens of thousands of maple gear teeth per year, mostly for use in paper mills and grist mills , some dating back over years. The definite ratio that teeth give gears provides an advantage over other drives such as traction drives and V-belts in precision machines such as watches that depend upon an exact velocity ratio.
In cases where driver and follower are proximal, gears also have an advantage over other drives in the reduced number of parts required. The downside is that gears are more expensive to manufacture and their lubrication requirements may impose a higher operating cost per hour. An external gear is one with the teeth formed on the outer surface of a cylinder or cone.
Conversely, an internal gear is one with the teeth formed on the inner surface of a cylinder or cone. For bevel gears , an internal gear is one with the pitch angle exceeding 90 degrees.
Internal gears do not cause output shaft direction reversal. Spur gears or straight-cut gears are the simplest type of gear. They consist of a cylinder or disk with teeth projecting radially. Though the teeth are not straight-sided but usually of special form to achieve a constant drive ratio, mainly involute but less commonly cycloidal , the edge of each tooth is straight and aligned parallel to the axis of rotation.
These gears mesh together correctly only if fitted to parallel shafts. Spur gears are excellent at moderate speeds but tend to be noisy at high speeds. Helical or "dry fixed" gears offer a refinement over spur gears. The leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at an angle.
Since the gear is curved, this angling makes the tooth shape a segment of a helix. Helical gears can be meshed in parallel or crossed orientations. The former refers to when the shafts are parallel to each other; this is the most common orientation.
In the latter, the shafts are non-parallel, and in this configuration the gears are sometimes known as "skew gears". The angled teeth engage more gradually than do spur gear teeth, causing them to run more smoothly and quietly.
In spur gears, teeth suddenly meet at a line contact across their entire width, causing stress and noise. Spur gears make a characteristic whine at high speeds. For this reason spur gears are used in low-speed applications and in situations where noise control is not a problem, and helical gears are used in high-speed applications, large power transmission, or where noise abatement is important.
A disadvantage of helical gears is a resultant thrust along the axis of the gear, which must be accommodated by appropriate thrust bearings. However, this issue can be turned into an advantage when using a herringbone gear or double helical gear , which has no axial thrust - and also provides self-aligning of the gears.
This results in less axial thrust than a comparable spur gear. A second disadvantage of helical gears is also a greater degree of sliding friction between the meshing teeth, often addressed with additives in the lubricant. For a "crossed" or "skew" configuration, the gears must have the same pressure angle and normal pitch; however, the helix angle and handedness can be different. The relationship between the two shafts is actually defined by the helix angle s of the two shafts and the handedness, as defined: .
The crossed configuration is less mechanically sound because there is only a point contact between the gears, whereas in the parallel configuration there is a line contact. Quite commonly, helical gears are used with the helix angle of one having the negative of the helix angle of the other; such a pair might also be referred to as having a right-handed helix and a left-handed helix of equal angles.
The two equal but opposite angles add to zero: the angle between shafts is zero—that is, the shafts are parallel. Where the sum or the difference as described in the equations above is not zero, the shafts are crossed. For shafts crossed at right angles, the helix angles are of the same hand because they must add to 90 degrees. This is the case with the gears in the illustration above: they mesh correctly in the crossed configuration: for the parallel configuration, one of the helix angles should be reversed.
The gears illustrated cannot mesh with the shafts parallel. Double helical gears overcome the problem of axial thrust presented by single helical gears by using a double set of teeth, slanted in opposite directions. A double helical gear can be thought of as two mirrored helical gears mounted closely together on a common axle.
This arrangement cancels out the net axial thrust, since each half of the gear thrusts in the opposite direction, resulting in a net axial force of zero. This arrangement can also remove the need for thrust bearings. However, double helical gears are more difficult to manufacture due to their more complicated shape.
Herringbone gears are a special type of helical gears. They do not have a groove in the middle like some other double helical gears do; the two mirrored helical gears are joined together so that their teeth form a V shape. For both possible rotational directions, there exist two possible arrangements for the oppositely-oriented helical gears or gear faces.
One arrangement is called stable, and the other unstable. In a stable arrangement, the helical gear faces are oriented so that each axial force is directed toward the center of the gear. In an unstable arrangement, both axial forces are directed away from the center of the gear. In either arrangement, the total or net axial force on each gear is zero when the gears are aligned correctly.
If the gears become misaligned in the axial direction, the unstable arrangement generates a net force that may lead to disassembly of the gear train, while the stable arrangement generates a net corrective force.
If the direction of rotation is reversed, the direction of the axial thrusts is also reversed, so a stable configuration becomes unstable, and conversely. Stable double helical gears can be directly interchanged with spur gears without any need for different bearings. A bevel gear is shaped like a right circular cone with most of its tip cut off.
When two bevel gears mesh, their imaginary vertices must occupy the same point. Their shaft axes also intersect at this point, forming an arbitrary non-straight angle between the shafts. The angle between the shafts can be anything except zero or degrees.
Bevel gears with equal numbers of teeth and shaft axes at 90 degrees are called miter US or mitre UK gears. Spiral bevel gears can be manufactured as Gleason types circular arc with non-constant tooth depth , Oerlikon and Curvex types circular arc with constant tooth depth , Klingelnberg Cyclo-Palloid Epicycloid with constant tooth depth or Klingelnberg Palloid.
Spiral bevel gears have the same advantages and disadvantages relative to their straight-cut cousins as helical gears do to spur gears. Note: The cylindrical gear tooth profile corresponds to an involute, but the bevel gear tooth profile to an octoid.
Furthermore, the "involute bevel gear sets" cause more noise. Hypoid gears resemble spiral bevel gears except the shaft axes do not intersect. The pitch surfaces appear conical but, to compensate for the offset shaft, are in fact hyperboloids of revolution. Depending on which side the shaft is offset to, relative to the angling of the teeth, contact between hypoid gear teeth may be even smoother and more gradual than with spiral bevel gear teeth, but also have a sliding action along the meshing teeth as it rotates and therefore usually require some of the most viscous types of gear oil to avoid it being extruded from the mating tooth faces, the oil is normally designated HP for hypoid followed by a number denoting the viscosity.
Also, the pinion can be designed with fewer teeth than a spiral bevel pinion, with the result that gear ratios of and higher are feasible using a single set of hypoid gears. Whereas a regular nonhypoid ring-and-pinion gear set is suitable for many applications, it is not ideal for vehicle drive trains because it generates more noise and vibration than a hypoid does. Bringing hypoid gears to market for mass-production applications was an engineering improvement of the s.
Crown gears or contrate gears are a particular form of bevel gear whose teeth project at right angles to the plane of the wheel; in their orientation the teeth resemble the points on a crown.
A crown gear can only mesh accurately with another bevel gear, although crown gears are sometimes seen meshing with spur gears. A crown gear is also sometimes meshed with an escapement such as found in mechanical clocks. Worms resemble screws. A worm is meshed with a worm wheel , which looks similar to a spur gear. Worm-and-gear sets are a simple and compact way to achieve a high torque, low speed gear ratio.
For example, helical gears are normally limited to gear ratios of less than while worm-and-gear sets vary from to A worm gear is a species of helical gear, but its helix angle is usually somewhat large close to 90 degrees and its body is usually fairly long in the axial direction. These attributes give it screw like qualities. The distinction between a worm and a helical gear is that at least one tooth persists for a full rotation around the helix.
If this occurs, it is a 'worm'; if not, it is a 'helical gear'. A worm may have as few as one tooth. If that tooth persists for several turns around the helix, the worm appears, superficially, to have more than one tooth, but what one in fact sees is the same tooth reappearing at intervals along the length of the worm.
Gears are mechanisms used to transfer motion from one shaft to another. From automobiles to machinery. Gears are used to transfer motion from one shaft to another. Different types of gears have different applications. For Example, spur gears are used to transfer motion between parallel shafts. Whereas Rack and Pinion gears are used to convert rotational motion into linear motion. In this article we will discuss various types of gears and their applications.
Skip to main content. Search form Search. Worm gear design pdf. Worm gear design pdf worm gear design pdf 3. Fig Gripper rotation gear.
Gear is a Rotating Machine element that is having teeth which cut by the various Manufacturing process. Gears are used to transmit power from one shaft to another. When teeth are Engaged, then power will be transmitted from the driver shaft to the driven shaft that has gears mounted on it.
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