File Name: lathe machine parts and functions in hindi.zip
Staff Writer. Image Credit: Dmitry Kalinovsky, Shutterstock. CNC machining is a term commonly used in manufacturing and industrial applications. But exactly what is CNC? And what is a CNC machine? CNC The term CNC stands for 'computer numerical control', and the CNC machining definition is that it is a subtractive manufacturing process which typically employs computerized controls and machine tools to remove layers of material from a stock piece—known as the blank or workpiece—and produces a custom-designed part.
This process is suitable for a wide range of materials, including metals, plastics , wood, glass , foam, and composites, and finds application in a variety of industries, such as large CNC machining , machining of parts and prototypes for telecommunications, and CNC machining aerospace parts, which require tighter tolerances than other industries. Note there is a difference between the CNC machining definition and the CNC machine definition- one is a process and the other is a machine.
Subtractive manufacturing processes, such as CNC machining , are often presented in contrast to additive manufacturing processes , such as 3D printing, or formative manufacturing processes, such as liquid injection molding. While subtractive processes remove layers of material from the workpiece to produce custom shapes and designs, additive processes assemble layers of material to produce the desired form and formative processes deform and displace stock material into the desired shape.
The automated nature of CNC machining enables the production of high precision and high accuracy, simple parts and cost-effectiveness when fulfilling one-off and medium-volume production runs. However, while CNC machining demonstrates certain advantages over other manufacturing processes, the degree of complexity and intricacy attainable for part design and the cost-effectiveness of producing complex parts is limited. While each type of manufacturing process has its advantages and disadvantages, this article focuses on the CNC machining process, outlining the basics of the process, and the various components and tooling of the CNC machine sometimes incorrectly known as a C and C machine.
Additionally, this article explores various mechanical CNC machining operations and presents alternatives to the CNC machining process. Evolving from the numerical control NC machining process which utilized punched tape cards, CNC machining is a manufacturing process which utilizes computerized controls to operate and manipulate machine and cutting tools to shape stock material—e.
While the CNC machining process offers various capabilities and operations, the fundamental principles of the process remain largely the same throughout all of them. The basic CNC machining process includes the following stages:. Computer-aided design CAD software allows designers and manufacturers to produce a model or rendering of their parts and products along with the necessary technical specifications, such as dimensions and geometries, for producing the part or product.
For example, most CNC machine tooling is cylindrical therefore the part geometries possible via the CNC machining process are limited as the tooling creates curved corner sections.
Additionally, the properties of the material being machined, tooling design, and workholding capabilities of the machine further restrict the design possibilities, such as the minimum part thicknesses, maximum part size, and inclusion and complexity of internal cavities and features.
The formatted CAD design file runs through a program, typically computer-aided manufacturing CAM software, to extract the part geometry and generates the digital programming code which will control the CNC machine and manipulate the tooling to produce the custom-designed part. CNC machines used several programming languages , including G-code and M-code. The most well-known of the CNC programming languages, general or geometric code , referred to as G-code , controls when, where, and how the machine tools move—e.
Miscellaneous function code, referred to as M-code, controls the auxiliary functions of the machine, such as automating the removal and replacement of the machine cover at the start and end of production, respectively. These preparations include affixing the workpiece directly into the machine, onto machinery spindles , or into machine vises or similar workholding devices, and attaching the required tooling, such as drill bits and end mills, to the proper machine components.
Initiating the program prompts the CNC machine to begin the CNC machining process, and the program guides the machine throughout the process as it executes the necessary machine operations to produce a custom-designed part or product. CNC machining processes can be performed in-house—if the company invests in obtaining and maintaining their own CNC equipment—or out-sourced to dedicated CNC machining service providers.
CNC machining is a manufacturing process suitable for a wide variety of industries, including automotive, aerospace, construction, and agriculture, and able to produce a range of products, such as automobile frames, surgical equipment, airplane engines, gears , and hand and garden tools.
The process encompasses several different computer-controlled machining operations—including mechanical, chemical, electrical, and thermal processes—which remove the necessary material from the workpiece to produce a custom-designed part or product. While chemical, electrical, and thermal machining processes are covered in a later section, this section explores some of the most common mechanical CNC machining operations including:.
Drilling is a machining process which employs multi-point drill bits to produce cylindrical holes in the workpiece. However, angular drilling operations can also be performed through the use of specialized machine configurations and workholding devices. Operational capabilities of the drilling process include counterboring , countersinking, reaming, and tapping.
Milling is a machining process which employs rotating multi-point cutting tools to remove material from the workpiece. Operational capabilities of the milling process include face milling—cutting shallow, flat surfaces and flat-bottomed cavities into the workpiece—and peripheral milling—cutting deep cavities, such as slots and threads, into the workpiece.
Image Credit: Buell Automatics. Turning is a machining process which employs single-point cutting tools to remove material from the rotating workpiece.
In CNC turning , the machine—typically a CNC lathe machine —feeds the cutting tool in a linear motion along the surface of the rotating workpiece, removing material around the circumference until the desired diameter is achieved, to produce cylindrical parts with external and internal features, such as slots, tapers, and threads.
Operational capabilities of the turning process include boring , facing, grooving, and thread cutting. When it comes down to a CNC mill vs. However, lathes, with rotating workpieces and stationary cutting tools, work best for faster, more accurate creation of round parts. Close cousins to lathes, CNC spinning lathe machines involve a lathe set with a blank a metal sheet or tube that rotates at high speeds while a metal spinning roller shapes the workpiece into a desired shape.
Swiss machining , also known as swiss screw machining, uses a specialized type of lathe that allows the workpiece to move back and forth as well as rotate, to enable closer tolerances and better stability while cutting.
Workpieces are cut right next to the bushing holding them instead of farther away. This allows for less stress on the part being made. Swiss machining is best for small parts in large quantities, like watch screws, as well as for applications with critical straightness or concentricity tolerances.
You can find out more about this topic in our guide on how swiss screw machines work. It is not quite a 5-axis mill , however, because the fourth and fifth axes do not move during machining operations. Adding servomotors to the additional axes, plus the computerized control for them — the CNC part —would make it one. The two additional axes can also be incorporated at the machining head, or split — one axis on the table and one on the head.
To handle a CNC lathe , a machinist should have completed a set amount of coursework and earned appropriate certification from an accredited industrial training organization. CNC turning machining training programs will usually involve multiple classes or sessions, offering a gradual instruction process broken up into several steps. The importance of adhering to safety protocols is reinforced throughout the training process. Beginning CNC lathe classes might not include hands-on experience, but they may include familiarizing students with the command codes, translating CAD files, tool selection, cutting sequences, and other areas.
A beginner CNC lathe course may include:. Later CNC lathe training typically involves actual lathe operation, as well as machine adjustments, program editing, and the development of new command syntax.
This type of lathe machine training can include courses on:. Other mechanical CNC machining operations include:.
As indicated above, there is a wide range of machining operations available. Depending on the machining operation being performed, the CNC machining process employs a variety of software applications, machines, and machine tools to produce the desired shape or design.
The CNC machining process employs software applications to ensure the optimization, precision, and accuracy of the custom-designed part or product. Software applications used include:. CAD : Computer-aided design CAD software are programs used to draft and produce 2D vector or 3D solid part and surface renderings, as well as the necessary technical documentation and specifications associated with the part.
The designs and models generated in a CAD program are typically used by a CAM program to create the necessary machine program to produce the part via a CNC machining method. CAD software can also be used to determine and define optimal part properties, evaluate and verify part designs, simulate products without a prototype, and provide design data to manufacturers and job shops.
CAM : Computer-aided manufacturing CAM software are programs used extract the technical information from the CAD model and generate machine program necessary to run the CNC machine and manipulate the tooling to produce the custom-designed part. CAM software enables the CNC machine to run without operator assistance and can help automate finished product evaluation. CAE : Computer-aided engineering CAE software are programs used by engineers during the pre-processing, analysis, and post-processing phases of the development process.
CAE software is used as assistive support tools in engineering analysis applications, such as design, simulation, planning, manufacturing, diagnosis, and repair, to help with evaluating and modifying product design. Depending on the machining operation being performed, the CNC machining process employs a variety of CNC machines and machine tools to produce the custom-designed part or product.
While the equipment may vary in other ways from operation to operation and application to application, the integration of computer numerical control components and software as outlined above remains consistent across all CNC machining equipment and processes. Drilling employs rotating drill bits to produce the cylindrical holes in the workpiece. The design of the drill bit allows for the waste metal—i. There are several types of drill bits, each of which is used for a specific application.
Types of drill bits available include spotting drills for producing shallow or pilot holes , peck drills for reducing the amount of chips on the workpiece , screw machine drills for producing holes without a pilot hole , and chucking reamers for enlarging previously produced holes.
Typically the CNC drilling process also utilizes CNC-enabled drill presses , which are specifically designed to perform the drilling operation. However, the operation can also be performed by turning , tapping , or milling machines. Milling employs rotating multi-point cutting tools to shape the workpiece. Milling tools are either horizontally or vertically oriented and include end mills , helical mills , and chamfer mills. The CNC milling process also utilizes CNC-enabled milling machinery , referred to as mill machines or mills, which can be horizontally or vertically oriented.
Basic mills are capable of three-axis movements, with more advanced models accommodating additional axes. The types of mills available include hand milling, plain milling, universal milling, and omniversal milling machines.
Turning employs single-point cutting tools to remove material from the rotating workpiece. The design of the turning tool varies based on the particular application, with tools available for roughing, finishing, facing, threading, forming, undercutting, parting, and grooving applications.
The types of lathes available include turret lathes , engine lathes , and special-purpose lathes. Companies that specialize in manufacturing CNC machines often offer a desktop series of smaller, lightweight machines. Desktop CNC machines , although slower and less precise, handle soft materials well, such as plastic and foam.
Machines featured in a tabletop series resemble the larger industry standard, but their size and weight make them better suited to small applications. A desktop CNC lathe, for example, that features two axes and can handle parts up to six inches in diameter, would be useful for jewelry and mold-making.
Other common desk CNC machines include plotter-sized laser cutters and milling machines. Benchtop CNC lathes are generally more affordable, but also smaller and somewhat limited in the applications they can handle.
A standard CNC benchtop lathe generally includes the motion controller, cables, and basic software. A standard CNC desktop lathe, with a similar basic package, costs slightly more. The optimal material for selection to apply to a CNC manufacturing application is largely dependent on the particular manufacturing application and its specifications. Most materials can be machined provided that they can withstand the machining process—i. The workpiece material and its physical properties are used to determine the optimal cutting speed, cutting feed rate, and depth of cut.
Measured in surface feet per minute, the cutting speed refers to how fast the machine tool cuts into or removes material from the workpiece.
The feed rate—measured in inches per minute—is a measure of how fast the workpiece is fed towards the machine tool, and the cut depth is how deep the cutting tool cuts into the workpiece. Typically, the workpiece will first undergo an initial phase in which it is roughly machined to the approximate, custom-designed shape and dimensions, and then undertake a finishing phase in which it experiences slower feed rates and shallower cut depths to achieve its more precise and accurate specifications.
The same holds true for CNC machine programming. Even as new manufacturing technologies unfold, the fundamentals for how parts are machined with a CNC program will stay with you forever. At the heart of this automated manufacturing process is a set of instructions that tells a CNC machine where — and how — to move. These instructions are called G-Code. Many of the words, or individual pieces of code, that make up this machine-based language start with the letter G. Why the difference in G-code flavors? It really comes down to the capabilities of each machine.
Lathes and milling machines are two essential machines used in the manufacturing industry. Both lathes and milling machines have their own unique functions and purpose. A lathe is a large machine resembling a common workbench. Consisting of nearly a dozen different parts — bed, carriage, headstock, tailstock, faceplate, etc.
Internally all the functionality of cnc lathe machine it controlled through cnc control. Headstock of a cnc lathe machine have the main motor of cnc lathe machine which drives the main spindle. Chuck is mounted on this main spindle. Here is another cnc lathe machine, the headstock covers are removed, so you can see the Main drive Main Motor , Gears.
The lathe is a very versatile and important machine to know how to operate. This machine rotates a cylindrical object against a tool that the individual controls. The lathe is the forerunner of all machine tools. The work is held and rotated on its axis while the cutting tool is advanced along the line of a desired cut.
Lathes are one of the most versatile machine tools in the industry, used to perform a variety of machining operations. The lathe is applied to the tool and rotated to perform various operations. It can be used for turning, tapping, forming turning, spiral cutting, finishing, passivation, boring, spinning, grinding, polishing, etc.
Lathe Machine is one of the oldest machine tools in the production machine. Today we will study Definitions, Parts, Types, Operations, Specifications, advantages, disadvantages, and applications of the Lathe machine. Lathe machine is probably the oldest machine tool know to mankind. Its first use date back to BC in Egypt. The first lathe was a simple Lathe which is now called a two-person lathe. In this one person would turn the wood workpiece using rope and the other person would shape the workpiece using a sharp tool. This design was further improved by the Ancient Romans who added the turning bow and lather the paddle as there in the sewing machine was added.
Staff Writer. Image Credit: Dmitry Kalinovsky, Shutterstock. CNC machining is a term commonly used in manufacturing and industrial applications. But exactly what is CNC? And what is a CNC machine? CNC The term CNC stands for 'computer numerical control', and the CNC machining definition is that it is a subtractive manufacturing process which typically employs computerized controls and machine tools to remove layers of material from a stock piece—known as the blank or workpiece—and produces a custom-designed part. This process is suitable for a wide range of materials, including metals, plastics , wood, glass , foam, and composites, and finds application in a variety of industries, such as large CNC machining , machining of parts and prototypes for telecommunications, and CNC machining aerospace parts, which require tighter tolerances than other industries.
The important parts of speed lathe are following- 1 Bed 2 Headstock 3 Tailstock, and 4 Tool post mounted on an adjustable slide.