the wedding of zein and other stories pdf

The wedding of zein and other stories pdf

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To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. This granted him presence beyond the borders of the Sudanese territory and the Arab World.

In the case of El Tayeb Salih, exposure This study could launch from Chesterman's reference to the important focus of current linguistic research in the exploration of two relationships: a the relation between translations and source texts, and b the relation between translations and non-translated comparable texts in the target language, with the latter a newer development and comparable texts are sometimes referred to as parallel texts.

Furthermore, according to Holmes , translation studies can be divided into three categories: "1 Theoretical translation studies, 2 Descriptive translation studies DTS , and 3 Applied translation studies". The first category deals with the explanation and prediction of phenomena to constitute general principles. The second category deals with comparative studies; it focuses on textual phenomena and their translatability, be they linguistic, literary, or cultural, while the third category deals with translator training, translation aids, and translation criticism.

Obviously-as a comparative analytical examination of literary material in translation, this study belongs to the second category as it describes and compares translational aspects from a critical, analytical and methodological viewpoints applied to selected materials from Salih's writings.

Besides, much of the theoretical and practical discussion on the viability of literary translation, the extent of its utility and its faithfulness to the original texts form part of this exploration.

Statement of the ProblemLiterary translation is viewed by most scholars as the most challenging type of translations for all the rhetoric complications it involves. The difficulty in rendering equivalent linguistic and stylistic levels of original literary writings is felt by many to the extent that it leads to questioning the very translatability of related texts.

Thus, translators-however adept they may be-will be challenged by the colloquial speech-among other aspects-abundant in Salih style and this study finds worthy of examination from translational viewpoint. To achieve its investigational objectives, the study employs various complimentary empirical methods towards evaluating Johnson's translations. Research ObjectivesThe objectives of this study are To identify and describe the linguistic and the stylistic characteristics of El Tayeb Salih, both as exhibited in the SL and as reproduced in the TL translation.

To review the representation of original excerpts from El Tayeb Salih works in Johnson's English translations and weigh gains and losses. To statistically-both quantitatively and qualitatively-analyze the reception of English translations by TL recipients.

To comparatively investigate translated masterials as applied to the various aspects of the selected samples to derive conclusive and overall judgmental findings. Research QuestionsThis study attempts to answer the following questions: Research HypothesesFollowing are the hypotheses this study attempts to exhibit and verify: MethodologyWith the ultimate aim to empirically verify the degree of representation of source texts in the English translation and using an overall descriptiveanalytical and comparative method, the researcher applies four methods Firsthand impressionistic judgments on Johnson Davies translations.

These are commentary views which will be evaluated against the findings of the other methods, namely: 2. The Token Equivalence Method as a quantitative assessment tool which avails statistically-objective estimation of the rendition of original materials in the TL. Samples included three specific groups each containing ten selected colloquial conversational expressions.

Questionnaire analysis: In which the same selected translated materials shall be distributed to native speakers 30 subjects to analyse their appreciation of the products in their languages. Back-translation which involves assigning collected material from the TL renditions to be back-translated into Arabic by cooperating professional translators and academic colleagues proficient in Arabic and English totaling 30 subjects , and subjects the products to statistical analysis.

Data was collected via personal encounters as well as by communicative means, mainly internet contacts. Various components and derivatives of the Stastistical Package for Social Sciences were employed in analyzing the collected data. Limits of the StudyHolmes The study is limited in scope to examining translations into English of colloquial conversational materials from El Tayeb Salih short stories as achieved by Denys Johnson-Davies.

Emphasis will be drawn on the 'The Wedding of Zein' for richness of relevant data. Moreover, the translation into French of the same novel by Anne Wade Minkowski will also be consulted for quantitative comparative purposes within the Token Equivalence Method TEM anlysis.

Organization of the ThesisThis thesis is organized to contain four chapters. Chapter One is a preliminary introduction, which summarizes the major aspects of the research in terms of framing its scope, highlighting its objectives, setting the questions and the hypotheses to be scrutinized as well as describing the methodologies which will be used to conduct this study.

It exhibits specific issues relating to samples of translations accomplished from Arabic into English andfor a lesser account-into French, to highlight the main issues for discussion, in addition to a sampling review of African translated works accompanied by critical reasoning. The remainder part of the chapter presents the issue of translatability of literary texts, introduces and discusses the writings of El Tayeb Salih through an exploration of their linguistic and stylistic characteristics and the cultural representation they establish, followed by an exploration of Johnson's translations.

Here, the the first methodological tool which is the impressionistic evaluation is launched by the researcher. Chapter Three is devoted to the empirical analysis. It presents, analyzes and discusses data through the employment of three methodological strategies, namely: a the TEM methodology applied in its initial derivative to evaluate the materials collected for examination; b a questionnaire which employs native TL respondents, and c back translation; to be applied towards availing a reciprocal comparative output on the initial excerpts and the suggested reproductions.

Chapter Four exhibits obtained conclusions and findings, and suggests potential areas for further research. Translation: Definition and ScopeTranslation is defined as the expression in one language of what has been expressed in another, preserving semantic and stylistic equivalences, Bell 5.

Language is defined by Collins English Dictionary as a system for the expression of thoughts, and feelings by the use of spoken sounds or conventional symbols to communicate with understanding because of common background or values, while culture refers to the forms of things that people have in mind, their models for perceiving, relating, and otherwise interpreting them.

In practice, translation involves possessing and developing various communicative and writing skills. Being bilingual is not all that is required to be a translator. It is just one important prerequisite. In fact, the process of translating encompasses being at home and thoroughly-acquainted with both the SL and the TL of the text required to be translated in order to achieve a similarly powerful and equivalent reproduction.

The importance and relevance of translation to our daily life's needs is extensive and multidimensional. It enables people to keep abreast of the latest happenings in the various fields of knowledge, as well as accessing global knowledge of languages, literatures and cultures.

Translation is indispensable to learners and scholars in fields like science and technology, trade and business, mass communication, religion, tourism and education, to mention but a few.

The need for translation in all these domains makes its use indispensable to programs and strategies of development and progress and dictates that establishment of specialized colleges and departments offering preparatory and advanced training are similarly indispensable. Those departments should uphold the task of undergoing and encouraging intensive and extensive translation works to cope with the ever-expanding quest for communicating with the global world.

Lack or shortage of achieved translated works-in today's world of exchange of mass information-is an indication of backwardness and developmental retreat. It is unfortunate to know that translated products in the Arabic world are alarmingly meager compared to other parts of the world. More achievement in translating texts into or from Arabic explicitly means that more knowledge and exchange of thought are put in place. Furthermore, translation studies are vital in developing the standard of learnt languages native or others through enhancing their cognitive and pedagogical abilities.

It is also a helpful means for acquiring students with proficiency and accuracy in both comprehension and expression. One prerequisite element to the achievement of translation work is to understand the functions which could be fulfilled by any typical text oriented to translation, either in the SL or the TL. According to Shi Aiwei , such functions are: "1 referential, 2 expressive, 3 appellative, and 4 phatic".

As for literary texts, they are characterized by tone, melody and hence, they necessitate that their translators be self-expressive; and able to equate impressions generated by artists in their works. Types of TranslationLiterary translation involves the translation of literature such as novels, poems and plays. A literary translator's task is harder since he must be capable of also reproducing in the TL feelings, cultural nuances, figurative essence, humor and other subtle elements of a piece of work.

He is also supposed to creatively deal with literary texts rather sophisticated contexts, which implies the approximation of two cultures, two different ways of thinking, two different methods of realization and above all, two different mentalities. Besides literary texts treated by literary translation, there are as many other types of translation as there are fields of knowledge and expertise: legal, scientific, literary, technical, media and journalistic, religious, to mention only some.

Translation is also divided into kinds based on the form or the frame through which it is performed. It could be written, articulated consecutive, simultaneous or processed machine translation , with the latter gearing the introduction and development of computers' use in translation. Nevertheless, even when machine translation is applied, humans are still involved in the process either through pre-writing or post-editing.

There is no way so far that a computer can replace a human being's translation for all the complications relevant to the use and display of languages and cultures. The literary translation practice is basically fed by the interest of a translator which prompts him to translate a work into or from his mother tongue; such as the case of Denys John-son-Davies with his move to translate Salih's works.

Linguistic levels should carefully be considered in translation and adjustment to the source text is required not only when a translation into another language is involved but even when a literary work needs to be published in another country within the same source language area for instance an English novel written in an African country bearing peculiar cultural and social African donations to be published in England.

Such phenomena are to be skillfully conveyed to make them more accessible to different recipients. Three types of translation were identified by Jacobson cited by Shin Aiwei, , namely: a translation within the same language, referred to as intra-lingual translation, in which translators use different words and phrases to communicate similar meanings, b inter-lingual translation which involves rewriting a text from one language into another, and c intersemiotic translation which is "an interpretation of verbal signs by means of signs of nonverbal sign systems".

Linguistically, translation consists of studying the lexicon, grammatical structure, communication situation, and cultural context of the source language and its text, analyzing it in order to determine its meaning, and then reconstructing the same meaning using appropriate lexicon and grammatical structure in the target language and its cultural context, Larson As stated by Nida : "A translation must make sense, convey the spirit and manner of the original; have a natural and easy form of expression, and produce a similar response".

An important practice in translating is accommodation, which refers to the liberty a translator has with the original text in order to recreate its mood style and impact to similar effect in the source message. A translator deserves to be considered a co-author of the TL text. Al-Najjar cited in Bahameed, argues that:"Translators must become the mirrors of the original author, think his thoughts, have his opinions and feelings and train themselves to see the world through his eyes".

Relatedly, according to Shunnaq cited in Bahameed, , "a translator is expected to produce a translated text, which should be equivalent, creative, and vivid, and has the source language-cultural flavor". A rather comprehensive establishment of translators' competencies resulted in a PACTE Process of the Acquisition of Translation Competence and Evaluation developed by group of researchers, namely: Hurtado Albir and Orozco which consists of the following six sub-competencies: 1.

Communicative competence in both languages. Comprehension in the source language and expression in the target language. Extra-linguistic competence. Knowledge of the theory of translation, bi-cultural knowledge, encyclopedic and thematic knowledge. Transfer competence. The ability to perform the entire process of transfer from the original text to the final text: comprehension, deverbalization and separation of the two languages control over interference , re-expression and definition of the translation project selection of the most appropriate translation method.

The methods of transferring the original text into that of the target language differ from one text to another. For example, in transferring a literary text, a translator may use the communicative or the semantic approach.

According to Newmark 39 :"Communicative translation attempts to produce on its readers the same effect to that achieved on the reader of the original".

Semantic translation attempts-on the other hand-to render, as far as the semantic and syntactic structures allow, the exact contextual meaning of the original. Semantic translation emphasizes the content whereas in communicative translation the stress is on the force of the message Newmark, b.

Right decisions on the method to be adopted in translating depend on keen analysis and interpretation of the text in its various syntactic, semantic, stylistic and pragma-semiotic dimensions.

The old focus in translating -as explained by Nida et al. According to Sebnem Susam-Sarajeva translation can be redefined as "the migration and transformation of discursive elements between different discourses". Each of those discourses can be described as occupying a position in a larger system and as forming a system in itself. Although the definition and scope of translation has immensely been shaped by the aforementioned clarification for the dimensions added, Lawrence Venuti 4 argues differently on the criteria of "translation faithfulness", when he stated:Today the translator remains subordinate to the author of the original work.

A translated text is judged successful-by most editors, publishers, readers, by translators themselves-when it reads fluently, when it gives the appearance that it is not translated, that it is the original, transparently reflecting the foreign author's personality or intention or the essential meaning of the foreign text.

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Translation of three stories from: ʻUrs al-Zayn wa-sabʻ qiṣaṣ. The wedding of Zein & other stories. by: Salih, al-Tayyib Topics: Short stories, Arabic. Publisher 14 day loan required to access EPUB and PDF files.

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Leila Aboulela is an acclaimed Sudanese writer who currently resides in Abu Dhabi. Writing is her main career, and she also cares for her two young children. The daughter of a Sudanese man and an Egyptian woman, Aboulela was born in Cairo in but grew up in Khartoum. As Aboulela's writing is shaped by these experiences, it is useful to consider her work in its socio-historical context. Edward Said famously opens the main body of Orientalism 31—36 with a depiction of Egypt's colonization under the leadership of such politicians as Arthur James Most users should sign in with their email address.

Contact seller. Seller Rating:. Used Condition: Good. Within U. The item shows wear from consistent use, but it remains in good condition and works perfectly.

Лиланд Фонтейн, Чед Бринкерхофф и Мидж Милкен в безмолвном ужасе смотрели на открывшуюся их глазам картину. Тридцатью метрами ниже горел купол шифровалки. Поликарбонатная крыша еще была цела, но под ее прозрачной оболочкой бушевало пламя. Внутри клубились тучи черного дыма. Все трое как завороженные смотрели на это зрелище, не лишенное какой-то потусторонней величественности. Фонтейн словно окаменел. Когда же он пришел в себя, его голос был едва слышен, но исполнен решимости: - Мидж, вызовите аварийную команду.

Хотя смерть Энсея Танкадо спасет в будущем тысячи жизней, Сьюзан никогда не примет ничего подобного: она убежденная пацифистка. Я тоже пацифист, - подумал Стратмор, - я просто не могу позволить себе роскошь вести себя как пацифист. У него никогда не возникало сомнений по поводу того, кто убьет Танкадо.


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