File Name: learning theory and online technologies harasim .zip
Effective teacher professional development TPD is critical in improving the quality of education and assisting students in acquiring complex 21st-century skills.
TPD can enhance teachers' motivation and confidence and improve their knowledge and practice. The research has identified a set of TPD characteristics: content focus, sustained duration, incorporation of active learning, collaboration, modeling practices with coaching, feedback, and reflection Darling-Hammond et al. Through these practices situated, transformative, and theory-based TPD models challenge traditional transmissive models Borko et al.
In response to pressures for providing more flexible and cost-effective TPD, teacher educators have turned to innovative technology-mediated, online, and blended approaches that allow teachers to engage actively at their pace.
Collaborative online technologies allow teachers to engage in participatory, not content-driven experiences, with pedagogically intriguing electronic apprenticeship where meanings and insights can be co-constructed Dede et al. However, as the COVID pandemic revealed, quality teaching mediated through technology is not easily orchestrated. Quality online and technology-mediated teaching requires skillsets related to technology-mediated instruction, including development of materials, activities, and assessments, with skillful coordination of activities.
Instructional models based on how people learn with technology and attend to pedagogical principles are emerging e. However, the lack of attention to pedagogy during the design process may be a reason for many online designs not reaching their full potential Graham et al. The linear orientation of identifying learning outcomes, connecting them with performance assessments, and developing learning activities using available technology tools, is not sufficient.
It underestimates the need for strategic orchestration of instructional methods and technology, oriented toward a deeper understanding of the content and learning transfer. Although pedagogy and principles of effective TPD are relevant, it is unclear how these translate into online technology-mediated settings.
Research should focus not only on what works in oTPD but why it works Borko et al. This self-study of practice closely examines the process of designing and developing a fully-online instructor-facilitated TPD course grounded in sociocultural practices.
We explored our process of creating a course template and examined our decision-making patterns in designing the course. We sought to identify the design principles of practice that emerged in our work.
The study was conducted during the design phase of a larger research project. Because of our orientation to developing assertions for action and understanding, we selected the S-STTEP self-study of teaching and teacher education practices methodology LaBoskey, ; Pinnegar and Hamilton, Our self-initiated disciplined inquiry into our situated practice to improve practice allowed us to examine decision-making during template design.
We attended to particulars of the design, considered the context of decisions, and retrospectively reviewed design processes identifying patterns. The collaborating instructional designer brought experience in instructional design coupled with a K teaching background. The teacher educator Stefinee , an S-STTEP researcher, brought experience in designing curriculum and pedagogies representing sociocultural theory. Data included nineteen recordings of collaborative conversations recordings, each lasting approximately one hour, including artifacts related to the developing template and course materials developed during the discussions.
Bohdana analyzed the recorded collaborative meetings and related artifacts with Stefinee acting as a critical friend.
The analytic steps and processes, outlined sequentially, took place iteratively as data was continuously collected, analyzed, and interpreted and was part of the decision-making process. The analysis utilized two levels of continuous comparative techniques: 1 immediately after each meeting and 2 at the end of data collection.
We met regularly for twelve months, collaboratively reviewing progressing course design. At the end of meetings, we explored solutions bringing them to the next conversation. Pivotal points were revisited during subsequent meetings. Collaborative conversations were recorded and transcribed shortly after meetings. Transcription accuracy was verified, and transcripts adjusted as needed. We then decided to pursue two separate strands of inquiry: 1 understanding the elements and steps of the online TPD design process and 2 engage in S-STTEP to understand and improve practices revealed in the design process.
We employed critical reflection cycles focused on uncovering and making accessible our embodied knowledge, enabling articulation of patterns.
We used audit trail, exemplar-based validation, and negative case analysis LaBoskey, The core phenomenon of aligning pedagogy and technology emerged from our analysis of the design process. We organized our ideas as interconnected tensions Berry, We wove a fabric of understanding from strands of contradictions, turning the strain and pull into something strong and valuable.
Because of the varied perspectives and different design roles, unique patterns became evident. These provided necessary taut while our intense collaboration and mutual respect kept a proper balance. Upon carefully exploring the tensions, we recognized emerging solutions to our problems, allowing us to identify useful processes and guiding principles. Assertions for understanding from our self-study of design practice are presented as three strands of tensions: 1 delivery vs.
The following excerpt from collaborative conversation 4 is an excellent example of all three tensions present, proposing a potential approach:. Stefinee: What I think you do is you articulate your understanding, like based in the research, on Vygotsky's notion of sociocultural teaching.
Then you look at the constraints and affordances that are offered by online instruction And then you talk about your design as the way in which you meet those affordances and the ways in which you enhance it…. You take those constraints, and you say, 'So these are constraints, and they're not tenable.
What do we do to overcome those constraints in ways that mirror sociocultural theory rather than traditional direct instruction practice? Tonya: Something like here's a traditional discussion board or a traditional prompt that is used all the time Post once, reply twice… But look at what's happening in that and then say, 'Is it applying to sociocultural theory?
Or, is there a way that we can use the discussion boards and use those tools better in our online courses? Bohdana: Like, you're not creating deeper thinking and meaningful experiences…. Tonya: Yeah. And these are the things that we're missing. Is there a way we could still use this technology but enrich it? Each tension present in this illustration is discussed in detail below. Throughout our collaboration, we noticed the constant interaction between focusing on technology use or pedagogy.
The focus between attention to technology or pedagogy shifted within an individual's comments, depending on the role assumed from moment to moment. For example, Tonya's comment about using the discussion board better is an example of the linking of technology and pedagogy. Instructional design roles required our attention to the presentation and delivery of instruction through technology using technology tools and driven by issues of cost and access Graham et al.
On the other hand, the teacher educator roles required our attention to the underlying pedagogical structures and related methods and strategies as effective TPD entails modeling, experiencing, and practicing effective pedagogy e. In examining the tension between presentation and pedagogy, we recognized these seemingly disparate areas of focus exemplified two layers of design that need to be aligned.
The physical layer with surface features of presentation and instructional delivery is related to access and cost issues — a priority for instructional designers.
The underlying pedagogical layer, represented by structures and strategies and focused on supporting learning and reaching outcomes, is critical for teacher educators.
To optimize instruction, the pedagogical layer, including careful attention to learners' needs, must be aligned with affordances of the technological layer Antonenko et al. The tension of favoring either content-focused or participatory models enabled our recognition of the issues we faced in moving toward reconciling these conflicts. Instructional design and teacher education reside within educational psychology, but each takes a different orientation to learning which then influences the choice of instructional theories and differences in approaches to instructional design.
In the discussion of our online TPD design, we indicated that instructional design experts tend to choose content-focused independent study online models with controlled interactions. Some models are centered in social constructivism and recognize valuable principles of communities of practice e.
However, instructional designers typically develop course activities that conceptualize the learner as working in isolation, moving toward pre-determined and discrete learning outcomes, and activities are set in place generally without space for adjustment. The learner produces, and the teacher evaluates. Teacher educators ground their instruction within participatory frameworks, where knowledge emerges through collaborative interaction in learning activities supported by modeling and scaffolding and coaching from more experienced others.
Learning activities begin by capitalizing on background knowledge and experiences before new content is brought in. Learners make deep connections through interaction and extend learning through collaboration in producing artifacts that represent their learning, requiring frequent adjustment.
We identified two ways that helped us bring together the two theoretically contrasting models of instruction: identifying core attributes and specifying fixed and flexible element within the design.
An essential step for aligning pedagogy and technology is identifying a set of core attributes in the pedagogical layer that would lead to desired outcomes Graham et al. In our design, the choice of core attributes was guided by best TPD practices. Figure 1 shows the proposed alignment of the physical and pedagogical layers with their associated core attributes revealed in our conversations. In order to reach our overall TPD aims of changing teachers' beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, and classroom practices, the courses need to be grounded in sociocultural theory with learner-centered, dialogic, and inquiry-based instruction and design encouraging active collaborative participation, supports a variety of quality interactions with content, peers, and instructor, models effective practices, promotes theory-to-practice connection, and fosters deep engagement through reflection.
Notice, in Figure 1, the physical layer focused on presentation and delivery is without preset attributes, being determined on a task level during the alignment process explained below. Another way we were able to bring together the content-driven and participatory instructional models was to keep some elements of learning experiences fixed design-based and allow other elements to become fluid instruction-based.
Teachers cannot be continually present to each student. Intentionally identifying fixed and fluid design elements ensures such presence. Providing fluid elements in strategic places enables facilitators to adjust instruction as necessary to attend to the needs of individual learners as well as group learning needs, adjust the trajectory of the interactions, push through to overcome barriers, move the negotiation of understanding to next levels, and ultimately enhance the learning experience.
Emergence of this understanding is evidenced in the following exchange from collaborative conversation Stefinee: A liminal space is like a boundary and it's like you're not really one thing, and you're not another… and you've created this liminal space so you've done quite this straightforward school independent work, and then you've brought them and you've had them co-construct something, still very safe, and then right here you have this liminal space where you have opportunity for the more capable other to interject themselves… and so even though this is a small space, it's a large space, because what if I, as the facilitator, come in and this group has got it completely wrong… I'm gonna be really disruptive in that space, but if I come in and oh, these guys are really on track… in that space, we also want to teach our facilitators how to compliment the things that are right.
Because how many times have you written a paper and it comes back red and you fix it and then you just get more red because the teacher didn't say to you, "I love this part, it's working exactly the way it should, and I'm having you redo this part.
Stefinee: And there also has to be this "this is what you're doing right" in that liminal space, so you're continuing to push them to do what you want, but you're disrupting if they're going off track. So, that's one of the things, and you represented it, that it was there, but I think we just need to be…. Tonya: But the nice thing is that the teacher can really prepare for that if she's following along on their individual and group work.
She shouldn't be in shock. She shouldn't get in there and be like, "Wow, they're way off, now I'm going to redirect them! Bohdana: But it really has two functions, or possibly three. One is to gather information about the students, about their background knowledge and possibly connect it throughout the instruction; second, whether they're on track or not; and third, assessment purposes and push them.
Stefinee: Yes, also to push so their products are better. Right, so that space, you know, this is one of the unique things we're doing and it's not that people aren't doing it all the time online, they're just not talking about it in that way. Right, they're not talking about that as an instructional space, as a pedagogical space.
The ongoing tension between theory and practice surfaced in our discussions. It brought together all threads, helped us recognize commonalities in incommensurable views, and directed us toward particular solutions.
Darrell A. Last week we discussed social costructivism, derivatives of the major learning theories, community of inquiry, and connectivism theories. In this installment of Next Step to Success we will discuss additional theoretical frameworks relevant to the pedagogical aspects of online education. Just as no single learning theory has emerged for instruction in general, the same is true for online education. A number of theories have evolved, most of which derive from the major learning theories previously discussed. In this installment, several theories will be examined in terms of their appropriateness for the online environment.
Effective teacher professional development TPD is critical in improving the quality of education and assisting students in acquiring complex 21st-century skills. TPD can enhance teachers' motivation and confidence and improve their knowledge and practice. The research has identified a set of TPD characteristics: content focus, sustained duration, incorporation of active learning, collaboration, modeling practices with coaching, feedback, and reflection Darling-Hammond et al. Through these practices situated, transformative, and theory-based TPD models challenge traditional transmissive models Borko et al. In response to pressures for providing more flexible and cost-effective TPD, teacher educators have turned to innovative technology-mediated, online, and blended approaches that allow teachers to engage actively at their pace. Collaborative online technologies allow teachers to engage in participatory, not content-driven experiences, with pedagogically intriguing electronic apprenticeship where meanings and insights can be co-constructed Dede et al.
Summary: Online collaborative learning theory, or OCL, is a form of constructivist teaching that takes the form of instructor-led group learning online. In OCL, students are encouraged to collaboratively solve problems through discourse instead of memorizing correct answers. The teacher plays a crucial role as a facilitator as well as a member of the knowledge community under study. Linda Harasim, professor at the School of Communication at Simon Fraser University in Vancouver , developed online collaborative learning theory OCL in  from a theory originally called computer-mediated communication CMC , or networked learning .
We intend for the participants to develop a set of strategies that can be applied in the design and facilitation of high-quality online modules or courses. The structure of the workshop will be threefold, starting with a minute long introduction to the current situation of online teaching and the set-up of the interactive learning that will happen in the following steps. We will be using an actual online course as the platform, from which to access all activities as well as to demonstrate high quality course design in context. It will therefore be necessary for all participants to bring and use their wifi-able device recommended are laptops and tablets. For the second part, we are planning to moderate an hour of carousel learning, which will happen in separate stations.
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