File Name: intercropping panicum maximum and alfalfa in ethiopia by .zip
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If yes, please click on the button Donate. Any amount is the welcome. Even one cent is helpful to us! Lablab purpureus L. Sweet [ Fabaceae ]. Dolichos lablab L. Lablab Lablab purpureus L. Sweet is a summer-growing annual or occasionally short-lived perennial forage legume.
It is a twining, climbing, trailing or upright herbaceous plant that can grow to a length of m. It has a deep taproot and vigorous, glabrous or pubescent trailing stems.
Lablab leaves are alternate and trifoliolate. The leaflets are rhomboid in shape, 7. The upper surface is smooth while the underside has short hairs. Inflorescences are many-flowered racemes borne on elongated peduncles. The flowers are white to blue or purple in colour, about 1. Lablab fruits are linear, cm long x cm broad, smooth and beaked pods that contain between 2 and 8 seeds. Lablab seeds beans are ovoid, laterally compressed with a conspicuous linear hilum.
Lablab beans are variable in colour, depending on variety or cultivar, usually white to dark brown, and some are black. Wild varieties and some cultivated varieties tend to have mottled seeds FAO, ; Cook et al. Lablab purpureus is the only species of the Lablab genus. There are three subspecies:. Lablab is a multipurpose legume. Its immature seeds and pods, and young leaves are edible and cooked as vegetables. Mature dry beans are edible but they require prolonged cooking with several changes of water Cook et al.
Though valuable as a garden crop, lablab beans have a low market value and the seeds of other legumes, such as common bean Phaseolus vulgaris , cowpea Vigna unguiculata or Lima bean Phaseolus lunatus , are much more appreciated as food crops. When used for fodder, lablab can be grazed or harvested for cut-and-carry systems, hay and silage. It can be grown with other crops such as maize to make mixed fodder. An N-fixing legume, lablab is a valuable green manure Cook et al.
Lablab is used in ethnoveterinary medicine, examples from Kenya being to treat eye problems in sheep and lung problems in sheep, cattle and goats Adebisi et al. The origin of lablab is debated and it may have originated either from South or South-East Asia, or from Africa.
It was probably dispersed by humans as early as BCE and is now widespread throughout the tropics. In Australia, lablab became famous as a forage species with the release of the Rongai cultivar in Murphy et al. In the wild, lablab is found in grassland, bushland and gallery forests. As a cultivated crop, lablab has many favourable traits such as its ability to grow in a diverse range of environmental conditions.
Lablab is a summer growing legume that remains green during the dry season when other fodder is scarce and dry Murphy et al. Wild lablab types are found from sea level up to an altitude of m. However, when cultivated, lablab prefers lower altitudes.
Lablab withstands high temperatures Cook et al. It is more tolerant of low temperatures than velvet bean Mucuna pruriens or cowpea Vigna unguiculata. Thanks to its taproot, lablab can extract water from 2 m below the soil surface, which makes it drought hardy and allows it to grow during the dry periods of the year. Lablab tolerates some flooding but does not withstand poor drainage or prolonged waterlogging. Lablab thrives in a wide range of soils, from poor sandy soils to heavy clays, when drainage is good, pH is between 4.
Lablab does better in full sunlight Cook et al. Lablab is a fast growing legume that can provide fodder less than 3 months after sowing ILRI, It is suitable in intercropping systems where it is grown with maize, pearl millet and sorghum Cook et al. Lablab requires a well prepared seedbed where it can be drilled at cm depth or broadcast.
When it is intercropped, the seeds should be sown in well-spaced rows between maize or sorghum, and it should be sown at the same time or when maize is already 15 cm high. Lablab increased the yield of intercropped maize even when the upper part of the lablab plant was cut for livestock feeding Nyambati et al.
Lablab outcompetes other legume forages such as velvet bean or cowpea in dry conditions Cook et al. In a series of 11 trials in Tennessee USA , lablab cv. When lablab is cultivated alone for fodder the crop is harvested at the flowering stage or at the early green fruit stage Adebisi et al.
In Nigeria, lablab reaches its full potential for herbage yield and quality in the late dry season January when other fodder is scarce Amole et al. The harvest of immature pods is done by hand-picking every 3 or 4 days. The harvest of mature seeds starts weeks after sowing in early cultivars, and continues until after 45 weeks in late cultivars Adebisi et al. The association of lablab with cereal forages such as maize and sorghum has been beneficial in several trials.
In the Southern USA, lablab-sorghum mixtures contained more protein than sorghum monocultures with no consistent effect on NDF, this association being proposed as an alternative high-quality forage crop Contreras-Govea et al.
In Indonesia, yields of forage sorghum and forage sorghum intercropped with lablab were similar Juntanam et al. Sowing lablab with low quality roughages increased forage yield and overall chemical composition. The crop was ready for grazing or harvesting 12 weeks after planting.
Conserved as silage it could be fed to ruminant animals during the dry season when feed availability and quality were low Ojo et al. Lablab does not withstand heavy grazing.
The crop should be first grazed about 10 weeks after sowing, with care taken to ensure that the stems are not eaten with the leaves. Stems removal or cutting below 25 cm hampers leaf re-growth and forage yield. Under optimal grazing, a lablab stand can provide 3 grazings per season.
Hungry animals should not enter the crop as it may cause bloat if eaten in large amounts FAO, Leaf proportion was high in ungrazed swards and in regrowth when cutting height was more than 10 cm.
It was concluded that Lablab purpureus could be a valuable source of forage for growing cattle during hot and dry periods Fribourg et al. In Cuba, well-managed lablab could be grazed 4 times in the dry season by dairy cattle Milera et al. Also, unlike alfalfa, lablab does not re-grow after cutting if it is cut below a height of 15 cm Mullen, This increases the concentration of soluble sugars and thus facilitate fermentation.
Mixing with cereal crops maize or sorghum favours fermentation. Lablab is an N-fixing legume that can be incorporated into cereal cropping systems. Fixed N is then available for the next crop in the rotation Mullen, The lablab canopy prevents soil dehydration from sun and wind while the lower leaves are shed and provide mulch to the soil Mullen, Fresh forage and hay can have a similar nutritive value Linga et al.
The lysine content of lablab beans is rather high 6. Lablab seeds contain antinutritional factors including tannins, phytate and trypsin inhibitors.
Processing methods, such as removing the seed coat, soaking and cooking, are effective in alleviating the effects of these factors Lambourne et al. Lablab forage is a good source of metabolizable protein for ruminants.
However, its protein is highly degradable in the rumen, resulting in a fairly low contribution to by-pass protein. The overall digestibility and energy values of lablab are good. It was concluded that lablab had potential to provide a large amount of highly digestible biomass Hartutik et al.
Its high yield and good protein content makes lablab a valuable source of forage for growing cattle during hot and dry periods Fribourg et al. Most trials have concentrated on supplementation of forage diets with lablab.
In Cuba, lablab and soybean intercropped with maize provided the cheapest DM, could feed a greater number of animals and yielded more milk Cino et al. In the Southern Plains of the USA, in a comparison between lablab and cowpea used to supplement maize in dairy and beef cattle, it was concluded that lablab had greater potential than cowpea for forage production and could be an additional source of forage for dairy or beef cattle Contreras-Govea et al.
In Indonesia, forage sorghum intercropped with lablab had a better nutritive value than sorghum forage alone and resulted in higher live-weight gain, DM intake and milk yield Juntanam et al. In Nigeria, a mixed stand of lablab and Guinea grass Megathyrsus maximus was grazed or harvested 12 weeks after planting.
Conserved as silage, it could be fed to ruminant animals during the dry season when feed availability and quality were low Ojo et al. In Ethiopia, teff straw was successfully supplemented with lablab hay in calf diets. Increasing the legume forage level in the diet increased the rumen degradation rate, decreased retention time in the rumen and resulted in a higher DM intake Abule et al. In Kenya, milk production was increased by supplementing an elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum -based diet with mucuna or lablab hay Nyambati et al.
In Uganda, heifers fed on low-protein elephant grass had a higher growth rate when they were supplemented with lablab Tibayungwa et al. Lablab hay is a valuable forage for goats and sheep and can supplement forage-based diets of low quality.
In tropical regions, one of the primary difficulties in the sustainability of no-till systems is the maintenance of soil cover throughout the year. Intercropping corn Zea mays L. However, the use of sidedress nitrogen N fertilization in this intercropping system remains incompletely studied. In general, the intercropping systems of corn with palisade or guineagrass did not cause reductions in the leaf nutrient concentration, agronomic characteristics, kernels attributes, shoot dry matter and corn yield compared to that observed in the monocropped system. High sidedress N application rates promoted higher concentrations of nutrients in leaves primarily N and P , corn yield, forage production and crude protein concentration in the off-season. Thus, forage produced during the off-season can be used for animal grazing or fodder during the dry season, increasing revenue.
Intercropping grain with forage crops bridges the gap between agriculture and sustainability. In tropical regions, forage grasses are increasingly being adopted as winter pasture intercropped and in rotation with maize to maximize food production. However, current recommendations for nitrogen N fertilizer application are based on monocropped maize Zea mays , and the best N management approach for intercropping systems remains unclear. We measured dry matter DM and accumulated N in maize and forage grasses, as well as maize production components and yields. Additionally, land equivalent ratio, relative crowding coefficient, aggressivity of maize with forage grasses, forage crude protein CP concentration, estimated animal stocking rate, and estimated meat production and economic outcomes.
The availability of fodder is one of the limiting factors in animal husbandry. As is the case with humans, there is a direct link between the food and the health of the animals. If farm animals are to be productive milk, eggs, meat etc.
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The total dry matter yield (DMY) of the mixed pasture was highest The intercropping of P. antidotale and D. uncinatum at 75% legume during Livestock are important back bone in Ethiopian antidotale, with common name blue panic grass, was Rhodes grass and alfalfa mixed pasture resulted in the.