File Name: emile durkheim education and sociology .zip
After reading this chapter, you will be able to. This chapter introduces several theories concerning the sociology of education. Because this text explores education from a sociological perspective, it is essential that we consider how theory contributes to our understanding of education as a part of society. It is like seeing the world through a specific set of glasses see Figure 2.
Howard E. By Emile Durkheim. Foreword by Paul Fauconnet. Translated by Everett K. Wilson and Herman Schnurer. Edited, with an Introduction, by Everett K.
He believed schools would play a central role in forming modern societies. Functionalist sociologist Emile Durkheim saw Education as performing two major functions in advanced industrial societies — transmitting the shared values of society and simultaneously teaching the specialised skills for an economy based on a specialised division of labour. Durkheim, a French sociologist, was writing at the turn of the twentieth century late 19th and early 20th and he believed that schools were one of the few institutions uniquely poised to assist with the transition from traditional society, based on mechanical face to face solidarity, to modern society, which was much larger in scale and based on organic more abstract solidarity. Education, and in particular the teaching of history, provides this link between the individual and society. Durkheim argued that, in complex societies, school serves a function which cannot be fulfilled by either the family, which is based on kinship or friendship, which is based on personal choice, whereas being a member of wider society involves learning to get on with and co-operate with people who are neither our kin or our friends. School is the only institution capable of preparing children for membership in wider society — it does this by enforcing a set of rules which are applied to all children, and children learn to interact with all other children on the basis of these shared rules — it thus acts like a society in miniature.
This work, originally pulled from a series of lectures Durkheim gave in the early twentieth century, is not widely known today, although it certainly made a major impact on the work of Pierre Bourdieu, an important contemporary theorist whose work you will encounter time and again. Pay attention to the socializing role of education, and its overall role in creating and maintaining solidarity across generations. Every society, considered at a particular moment in its development, has an educational system which it imposes upon its people with an irresistible general force. It is in vain to believe that we can raise our children exactly how we want. There are customs to which we must conform; if we deviate too much from these, they will avenge themselves on our children. Once adults, they will not be able to live in harmony with their peers. It is not we, as individuals, who have created the customs and ideas of the education of our times.
He formally established the academic discipline of sociology and, with Max Weber , is commonly cited as the principal architect of modern social science. From his lifetime, much of Durkheim's work would be concerned with how societies could maintain their integrity and coherence in modernity , an era in which traditional social and religious ties are no longer assumed, and in which new social institutions have come into being. Durkheim would also be deeply preoccupied with the acceptance of sociology as a legitimate science. He refined the positivism originally set forth by Auguste Comte , promoting what could be considered as a form of epistemological realism , as well as the use of the hypothetico-deductive model in social science. For Durkheim, sociology was the science of institutions , understanding the term in its broader meaning as the "beliefs and modes of behaviour instituted by the collectivity,"  with its aim being to discover structural social facts.
There are several major manifest functions associated with education. The first is socialization. Beginning in preschool and kindergarten, students are taught to practice various societal roles. Indeed, it seems that schools have taken on this responsibility in full. This socialization also involves learning the rules and norms of the society as a whole.
In this classic text, Durkheim considers how education is able to perform the role of socialisation : teach children the norms and values of their society.Reply
He is widely regarded as the founder of the French school of sociology.Reply
Emile Durkheim, one of the first sociologists who studied formal education in a systematic manner, argued that formal education is the way that.Reply