File Name: structure and action mechanism of ligninolytic enzymes writer.zip
Production of lignolytic enzymes by the mushroom fungus Stereum ostrea in liquid medium under conditions of vegetative growth was examined for 10 days in comparison to the reference culture Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Though growth and secretion of extracellular protein by S. Stereum ostrea also exhibited activities of other lignolytic enzymes, lignin peroxidase LiP and manganese peroxidase MnP , higher than the reference culture. Growth of S. Lignin is the second most abundant aromatic polymer in nature with three-dimensional structure composed of phenyl propanoid units linked through several carbon-carbon and ether bonds [ 1 , 2 ]. Such complex structure of lignin is designed in plant cell wall to protect plant cells from microbial attack [ 3 ]. Degradation of recalcitrant lignin requires an oxidative process mediated by lignolytic enzymes.
Ligninolytic enzymes are involved in the degradation of the complex and recalcitrant polymer lignin. This group of enzymes is highly versatile in nature and they find application in a wide variety of industries. The biotechnological significance of these enzymes has led to a drastic increase in the demand for these enzymes in the recent time. The utilization of agro-industrial residues in this aspect is much appreciated due to their low cost and ease in availability. Adopting solid-state fermentation for enzyme production may add to the benefit of reducing the production costs. The studies have proved that huge quantities of lignocellulosic residues are available world wide for the production of ligninolytic enzymes. The current trend is to make use of every such locally available agro-industrial residue for enzymes production to meet the demand for the same from the industrial sectors.
DOI : Lignin is abundant in nature. It is a potentially valuable bioresource, but, because of its complex structure, it is difficult to degrade. However, enzymatic degradation of lignin is effective. Major lignin-degrading enzymes include laccases, lignin peroxidases, and manganese peroxidases.
Advances on Polymer Biotechnology View all 9 Articles. The polymerization of aniline to polyaniline PANI can be achieved chemically, electrochemically or enzymatically. In all cases, the products obtained are mixtures of molecules which are constituted by aniline units.
Herbicides - Advances in Research. The high demand for food due to the increase in the world population has led to an increasing use of plant protection products, also known as pesticides, in order to improve productivity. However, along with the success in food production, the accumulation of these persistent chemicals in soil and water is harmful to the environmental and human health [ 1 ]. In recent years, agricultural pesticide application has increased all over the world. A total of 5, mil lbs of pesticides were used worldwide in [ 2 ]. There are many different types of pesticides; each is meant to be effective against specific pests. The term "-cide" comes from the Latin word "to kill.
Previous works have demonstrated that ligninolytic enzymes mediated effective degradation of lignin wastes. The degrading ability greatly relied on the interactions of ligninolytic enzymes with lignin. Ligninolytic enzymes mainly contain laccase Lac , lignin peroxidase LiP and manganese peroxidase MnP. In the present study, the binding modes of lignin to Lac, LiP and MnP were systematically determined, respectively. Robustness of these modes was further verified by molecular dynamics MD simulations.
Pretreatment strategies for delignification of sugarcane bagasse: a review.