crisis cities disaster and redevelopment in new york and new orleans pdf

Crisis cities disaster and redevelopment in new york and new orleans pdf

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Constructing Crises

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Crisis Cities - E-bog

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An influx of young, creative workers has helped reverse the decades-long brain drain, sparking a sense of optimism Ehrenfeucht and Nelson The economy has diversified, no longer as dependent as before on tourism or on petroleum-related sectors. And while some neighborhoods have experienced resurgence—in some cases raising concerns of gentrification and displacement—others still face widespread blight and abandonment Ehrenfeucht and Nelson

Constructing Crises

Louisiana's Response to Extreme Weather pp Cite as. This chapter identifies climate change adaptation measures implemented in post-Sandy New York City and post-Katrina New Orleans and examines their conflictual and contradictory dynamics and impacts. Climate change adaption measures aim to reduce existing and future climate change risks and enhance adaptive capacity. The chapter begins with an introduction to the concepts of risk, resilience, mitigation, and adaptation.

We then use a comparative-sociological approach to examine similarities and variation in adaptation dynamics in the two cities. We develop a dual argument that the decentralized and fragmented structure of policy-making and implementation in the United States both 1 frustrates and discourages the formulation and implementation of comprehensive climate change adaptation measures and 2 fosters spatially distinct locations for different types of climate change adaptation measures, a condition that buttresses local distinctiveness and innovation.

The chapter focuses attention on the social structural challenges of reducing climate change risks, the various policy options in the two cities, and the facilitative and contradictory roles of the federal government in the local implementation of climate change adaptation measures.

Scientists increasingly point to the possibility of multiple abrupt negative consequences associated with anthropogenic climate change.

Climate change poses risks to many environmental and economic systems—including agriculture, public infrastructure, ecosystems, and human health—and presents a significant financial risk to federal, state, and local governments US Global Change Research Program ; National Research Council a , b.

Scientists expect climate change to threaten coastal cities and ecosystems with rising sea levels, elevated tidal inundation, increased storm and flood frequency and intensity, and accelerated erosion and saltwater intrusion Blum and Roberts ; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC] ; Karl et al. These risks not only imperil the long-term sustainability of cities and communities, but they could create significant fiscal problems for local, state, and federal governments.

Climate change adaptation measures are an amalgam of government policies, socio-legal regulations, statutes, and laws to reduce current and future vulnerability to the negative impacts of climate change e.

As a risk management strategy, climate change adaptation represents adjustments to natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climate change. The broad goal is to help protect vulnerable sectors and communities that might be affected by changes in the climate GAO For example, adaptation measures include raising river or coastal dikes to protect infrastructure from sea-level rise, building higher bridges, and increasing the capacity of storm water systems.

State and local authorities are responsible for the planning and implementation of many types of infrastructure projects, and decisions at these levels of government can affect insurance rates for businesses and homeowners as well as influence patterns of economic development. While implementing adaptive measures may be costly, policy-makers and elected leaders are increasingly recognizing that the cost of inaction could be greater as damage from weather-related events becomes more expensive GAO , This paper addresses the ways in which the decentralized and fragmented structure of policy-making and implementation in the United States both constrains the process of formulating and implementing comprehensive climate change adaptation measures and encourages cities to respond to climate change using their own distinctive policy measures.

Encompassing comparison seeks to understand how local actions and events express the interaction of local-global forces and relations including institutional forms, regulatory strategies, and governance projects. We conceptualize the pairing of climate change adaptation measures as an encompassing comparison, which, according to Charles Tilly , p.

Our comparison provides an opportunity to reflect upon how decisions surrounding climate change adaptation measures take place in a larger political economy of policy-making that shapes and constraints local actions. Over the last decade or so, scholars and policy-makers have debated the steps governments can take to reduce risk of extreme events through climate change adaptation and align such adaptation with broader resilience efforts Gotham et al.

Risk refers to situations or conditions that pose a threat to human health, quality of life, and community well-being for an overview, see Tierney Risk is a relational term that is closely connected to the notion of resilience, which the National Research Council b , p.

Scholars theorize that two related sets of actions—climate change mitigation and climate change adaptation—may be able to enhance resilience by reducing risk. Mitigation refers to human actions to reduce the sources of greenhouse gases GHGs that contribute to global warming and, in turn, sea-level rise. We follow climate change scientists in viewing climate change mitigation and adaptation as conceptually separate and analytically distinct.

Flood risk reduction, for example, involves a combination of structural—focusing on reducing the probability of flooding—and physical and nonphysical nonstructural measures that focus on reducing the consequences of flooding US Army Corps of Engineers In addition, nonstructural risk reduction measures would include flood insurance, floodplain mapping, improving response capacity, improving post-disaster assessment and communication capacity, and developing more effective strategies to communicate risk and mitigation activities to various stakeholders.

Nonstructural mitigation is akin to adaptation. FEMA supports a variety of nonstructural flood mitigation activities to reduce flood risk.

Because mitigation is intended to reduce the harmful effects of climate change, it is part of a broader policy framework that also includes adaptation to climate impacts. Climate change adaptation refers to actions taken by governments, nonprofit organizations, and private firms to reduce the loss of life and property by lessening the impacts of adverse climate change events such as weather-related disasters.

Climate change adaptations can also be classed as either process-oriented measures—aimed at developing information systems, social structures, and governance needed to support adaptation—or outcome-oriented actions, measures taken to reduce vulnerability and exploit opportunities that arise from a changing climate. Climate change adaptation measures can be effect-oriented in the sense of building flood protection or cause-oriented by adopting approaches such as changing the location of areas for new housing development.

Climate change adaptation includes activities such as restoring wetlands and coastal areas to control erosion, improving the quality of road surfaces to withstand hotter temperatures, protecting critical facilities against the negative effects e. Governments may plan and adopt adaptation measures in advance, establish them in the aftermath of a major disaster, or create them in response to local pressures.

In addition to large-scale infrastructure measures to adapt to climate change, governments may also implement policies and regulations to incentivize people to change their behaviors. This approach includes motivating them to use less water, encouraging farmers to plant different crops, and urging more households and businesses to purchase flood insurance. Many researchers and policy-makers consider climate change a global problem that demands international action and global solutions.

The unequal burdens inflicted by climate-related disasters and limited disaster response capacities will exacerbate these inequalities and likely generate unforeseen consequences. Variations in individual, community, and national vulnerability to the impacts of climate change are only part of this global structure of inequality.

Thus, the impacts of climate change are not spread evenly, and its effects will be felt by different social groups in radically different ways. The ways in which climate change is closely intertwined with state policy-making, institutional arrangements, and political economy is one of the reasons why it has proven so unique an issue to address internationally as a global problem. Conceptualizing climate change as a global-local issue and using comparative analyses draws attention to different socio-spatial inequalities, local and regional histories and geographies, and their implications for communities.

These concerns bring explicit temporal and spatial dimensions to our understanding of the local impacts of global climate change. Climate change adaptation measures are activated and reproduced through the concrete actions taken by state actors, elected leaders, economic elites, and other powerful organized interests. A core assumption of this agent-centric approach is that the adoption of climate change adaptation actions does not develop out of an inevitable and unalterable structural necessity but rather in a contingent manner; it results from the conscious actions taken by individual decision-makers in various institutions, organizations, and communities acting under particular historical circumstances.

This emphasis on contingency and agency compels us to examine the actions of human agents, organizations, and interest groups in an effort to grasp how larger climate change dynamics and effects occur at the local level.

Underscoring the importance of space and time in climate change research means that any explanation of why and how climate change policy actions develop will need to take account of where and when they develop.

In the sections below, we address the obstacles to climate change adaptation by focusing on the dynamic ways in which antagonisms—incongruences and inconsistencies between goals, implementation strategies, and outcomes—develop and persist.

Lack of resources to meet the costs of adaptation can be a financial barrier. Collective opposition and political mobilization against adaptation can be a social-cultural barrier. Finally, gaps in climate change knowledge and the transmission of information can create an information barrier. Eisenack et al. In attempt to move beyond debates over discrete barriers to climate change adaptation, Pelling et al.

In their work, transformative adaptation is a multifaceted concept that researchers can use to describe responses that produce nonlinear changes in systems or their host social and ecological environments. The concept of transformative adaptation dovetails with the notion of transformative resilience developed by Gotham and Campanella and suggests that we view climate change adaptation in a multidimensional fashion, for example, as a political decision point, an opportunity for socio-spatial change, and a prospect for resistance to dominant developmental pathways.

Through a comparison of New Orleans and New York, our research helps to explain the major antagonisms of adaptation and provides insights on how to overcome them to enhance societal resilience to climate change risks. Following the logic of encompassing comparison, we analytically juxtapose policy trajectories and institutional arrangements rather than compare discrete units or fixed variables. The chapter offers a sociological critique of the dominant approaches to adaptation and highlights the institutional and social antagonisms that are shaping the implementation of climate change policy in each city.

Our theorization of the facilitative and discouraging power of state action in the development of climate change adaptation measures focuses on the state as an actor and as an institutional structure. The state comprises many actors that can formulate and implement different policies and socio-legal regulations to respond to climate change.

State governments have special charters and can make property rights decisions to alter the organization of firms and corporate hierarchies.

Through legislative debate and compromise, the US Congress makes laws, holds hearings to inform the legislative process, conducts investigations to oversee the executive branch, and represents voting constituencies and states in the federal government. Courts can determine the meaning and effect of laws passed by the state legislatures. Over the decades, US judges have played aggressive roles in interpreting policy-making and economic governance Campbell and Lindberg As an institutional structure, the state power and authority are fragmented and restricted to the extent that state and local governments exercise political authority within their own geographical areas.

The existence of 50 separate governments combined with hundreds of municipalities in metropolitan areas has played an important role in the development of different markets, real estate financing, and land-use policies and regulatory strategies. For the most part, laws and regulations pertaining to economic activity and investment are locally based.

These laws and regulations include, among many others, recording regulations, banking laws, zoning laws, subdivision regulations, private deed restrictions, land-use regulations, building codes, insurance laws, and property tax law Feagin and Parker ; Gotham , At the same time, local laws and socio-legal regulations establish institutional practices and rules of exchange that coordinate local economic activity among organizations in a particular economic sector residential, commercial, or industrial activity and, more importantly, create distinctive locations for policy-making, investment, and economic activity.

The implication is that the decentralized and fragmented institutional structure of the state has influenced the development of legal forms that reinforce the place specificity of climate change adaptation measures thereby fostering local uniqueness and innovation Gotham The New York City metropolitan area, with 23 million residents and approximately miles of tidal coastline, faces a severe social-ecological threat from climate change-driven warming and sea-level rise.

The New York City Panel on Climate Change NPCC , an organization that examines climate change vulnerability and prepares projections for the City and metropolitan region, contends that extreme weather will increase in frequency and severity and that the climate will become more variable.

Climate projections encompass a wide range of possible outcomes: mean annual temperature is projected to increase between 4. New York City has experienced the devastating effects of coastal storms, most recently during Hurricane Sandy, as well as flooding in low-lying areas during high tides.

Sea-level rise is projected to increase the depth, extent, and frequency of flooding from storm surge and during high tides Horton et al.

Like New York, the New Orleans metropolitan area constitutes a highly cited example of a region experiencing the leading edge of climate-related stresses that are widely anticipated to affect coastal regions worldwide Hallegatte et al. Given its low elevation and susceptibility to storm surge, extreme storm events and sea-level rise stand out as two of the most severe consequences of climate change in New Orleans and much of southern Louisiana.

In contrast, the past century has seen rates of at least 2 mm yr. Moreover, modeling assessments consistently point toward an increase in hurricane intensity with global warming.

Hurricanes strike the Louisiana coast with a mean frequency of 2 every 3 years Kolb and Saucier In , Hurricane Katrina forced the largest and most abrupt displacement in US history with approximately 1. Using storm surge models, scientists predict a doubling of Hurricane Katrina-magnitude events over the next century Grinsted et al. For New Orleans, climate-related environmental change coalesces with other non-climate stressors such as wetland loss and land subsidence.

In addition to subsidence and accelerated sea-level rise, the dredging of about 15, km of canals in the Mississippi River Delta area, primarily for oil and gas infrastructure, has led to widespread saltwater intrusion and ecosystem degradation. However, the fundamental cause of wetland loss is the isolation of the delta plain from sediment input due to the embankment of the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers by artificial levees.

Since embankment was completed in the s, the majority of the Mississippi River sediment load has been lost to the deeper waters of the Gulf of Mexico, where the mouth of the river debouches at the shelf edge rather than near shore and inland areas that would replenish the delta plain Campanella Our comparative analysis of climate change adaptation measures in New York and New Orleans suggets two sets of intersecting factors that pose interesting conditions for studying climate change responses.

These highly sensitive regions face a future of rising relative sea level, increased frequency and destructiveness of storm events, extreme vulnerability to flood trauma, and potential for major displacement. Scientists view the two regions as harbingers of climate change impacts to come for coastal ecosystems worldwide Kent ; Reed et al. On the other hand, both cities constitute the leading edge of socio-legal experimentation, regulatory inventiveness, and policy innovation that will likely offer new approaches and strategies to help other cities adapt to climate change.

Currently, planners and policy-makers debate various policies to reduce coastal risk, and major coastal restoration projects, climate change adaptation, and mitigation efforts are currently underway Gotham a , b ; Gotham and Cheek ; Gotham and Cannon ; Gotham and Powers ; Peyronnin et al. Yet the level at which elected leaders and policy-makers understand the causes and consequences of climate change, as well as the extent to which they regard climate change as harmful to the ecological and economic sustainability of the two cities and regions, is not known.

These concerns underpin the need to examine the local and regional dynamics of climate adaptation policy-making and implementation in detail.

Both New York City and New Orleans face long-term sustainability challenges related to the distinctive and peculiar system of local, state, and federal relationships and financing arrangements in the United States Gotham and Greenberg As a distinctive configuration of organizations, the agencies of the different branches of the federal government, as well as agencies at the state and local government levels, are predisposed to struggle and conflict over funding amounts and mechanisms of financing.

Insofar as the different parts of local, state, and federal governments have overlapping responsibilities for policy-making, contradictory policy actions and political stalemate are possible.

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Drawing on a wide array of ethnographic data, interviews, media, and official documents, Gotham and Greenberg discuss how both post-disaster cities exemplify a pattern of urbanization driven by what is broadly characterized as a neoliberal approach to post-disaster redevelopment, and thus by the interests of corporations, investors, real estate agents, and tourists rather than by the immediate Most users should sign in with their email address. If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in. To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above. Don't already have an Oxford Academic account? Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.

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Louisiana's Response to Extreme Weather pp Cite as. This chapter identifies climate change adaptation measures implemented in post-Sandy New York City and post-Katrina New Orleans and examines their conflictual and contradictory dynamics and impacts. Climate change adaption measures aim to reduce existing and future climate change risks and enhance adaptive capacity. The chapter begins with an introduction to the concepts of risk, resilience, mitigation, and adaptation.

Based on years of research in the two cities, Gotham and Greenberg contend that New York and New Orleans have emerged as paradigmatic crisis cities, representing a free-market approach to post-disaster redevelopment that is increasingly dominant for crisis-stricken cities around the world. This mode of urbanization emphasizes the privatization of disaster aid, devolution of recovery responsibility to the local state, use of tax incentives and federal grants to spur market-centered redevelopment, and utopian branding campaigns to market the redeveloped city for business and tourism. Meanwhile, it eliminates low-income and public benefit standards that once underlay emergency provisions. Focusing on the pre- and post-history of disaster, Gotham and Greenberg show how this approach exacerbates the uneven landscapes of risk and resiliency that helped produce crisis in the first place, while potentially reproducing the conditions for future crisis.

Antagonisms of Adaptation: Climate Change Adaptation Measures in New Orleans and New York City

Louisiana's Response to Extreme Weather pp Cite as. The extensive destruction of homes and neighborhoods in the wake of the storm meant that the city had to be reimagined and rebuilt.

Crisis Cities - E-bog

 - Она давно уехала. Отправилась в аэропорт несколько часов. Самое место, где толкнуть колечко: богатые туристы и все такое прочее. Как только получит денежки, так и улетит. Беккер почувствовал тошноту. Это какая-то глупая шутка. Он не находил слов.

 - Мне пришлось его проинструктировать. - Проинструктировать. Относительно. - Относительно его поездки. Я отправил Дэвида в Испанию. ГЛАВА 11 Испания.

Да, Грег Хейл противный и наглый, но он же не предатель.

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Он только что установил новый комплект аттенюаторов на неисправную материнскую плату, когда внезапно ожил его мобильный. - Проклятие! - выругался он, потянувшись к телефону сквозь сплетение проводов.  - Джабба слушает. - Джабба, это Мидж. Он просиял. - Второй раз за один вечер.

За несколько лет работы ТРАНСТЕКСТА ничего подобного не случалось. Перегрелся, подумал. Интересно, почему Стратмор его до сих пор не отключил. Ему понадобилось всего несколько мгновений, чтобы принять решение. Фонтейн схватил со стола заседаний трубку внутреннего телефона и набрал номер шифровалки.

Все происходящее напомнило ему нечеткую фотографию. Мысли его то и дело возвращались к Сьюзан: он надеялся, что она уже прослушала его голос на автоответчике. Чуть впереди, у остановки, притормозил городской автобус. Беккер поднял. Дверцы автобуса открылись, но из него никто не вышел.


  • Chalten D. 20.11.2020 at 06:23

    Rather than target the populations and ecosystems most heavily impacted by the disasters, deregulated aid dollars subsidize luxury development and urban rebranding campaigns that accelerate gentrification and displacement and advance urban agendas long sought by growth coalitions, By exposing both the pre- and post-history of the two disasters, the book shows how long-neglected landscapes of risk and vulnerability combine with starkly inequitable redevelopment to turned sudden disaster into long-term crises.

  • Warrane A. 24.11.2020 at 07:51

    Request PDF | On May 5, , Kevin Fox Gotham and others published Crisis Cities: Disaster and Redevelopment in New York and New.

  • Jenni P. 25.11.2020 at 12:11

    Azar basic english grammar 3rd edition pdf role of it in supply chain management pdf


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