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The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin is broken down into two main halves. The second half was written several years later, but was ultimately never finished due to his death in And, importantly, has since been considered one of the most influential and famous autobiographies of all time. Franklin did not only want to produce a dry reference to names and dates. He wanted to make the autobiography a story of self-improvement, error and correction. He also was willing to accept, unlike many autobiographers, that this memoir was partly a way of indulging his vanity.
Franklin believed vanity to be a good thing, for both the individual and surrounding people. One of the founding fathers of the United States, Benjamin Franklin is one of the most influential Americans to have ever lived.
Franklin was a polymath and one of the individuals at the forefront of the abolitionist movement in the US. Plus, it also covers his early childhood and the beginning of his working career.
Part 1 was started in , while he was 65 and on vacation in the town of Twyford, England. This autobiography starts as a letter to his son, William. He believes this might be the case, as Franklin personally takes pleasure in hearing stories of his family members. Franklin also describes his story to be particularly obscure. He made the unusual life trajectory from tradesman to statesman. In doing so, he believes his story is not simply an interesting one, but potentially one his son could imitate.
Hence, he had the opportunity to start this memoir. Franklin starts his autobiography by providing an outline of his family history. Then, he moves towards his younger years. He traces his family history all the way back to the s to a village in Northamptonshire, England, called Ecton. He also found out that he was the youngest son of the youngest son, dating back five generations. This history is followed until the family line reaches his father, Josiah.
Franklin explained how his family would tape an English Bible under a joint stool. They did this so they could easily conceal the Bible upon inspection by the religious police.
From the age of 10, Franklin was taken out of school to work for his father, Josiah. His father then decided to encourage Franklin to observe other workmen handling their tools, to help Franklin identify a trade he would enjoy.
After consideration, Benjamin decided to work as an apprentice for his brother, James, who was a printer in Boston. Franklin thoroughly enjoyed this trade, partly because he was surrounded by books and writing. He used this time as inspiration to perfect his own writing style by studying the Spectator. This love of reading is something that he had developed from a young age. He would sit up most of the night reading.
His profession and his passion for reading inspired him to write his own anonymous paper. His brother and his friends praised this paper and decided to publish it in the Courant. Upon finding out Benjamin was the author of these essays, James was furious. This led to Benjamin running away to Philadelphia at the age of sixteen. Franklin also took a fancy to poetry during his time working for his brother, writing two poems and one sailor song.
Benjamin Franklin admitted these poems were unsatisfactory and that he luckily escaped being a poet as his father, Josiah, did not approve of poets. Josiah believed poets to generally be beggars. As well as engaging with poetry for a brief period, Benjamin Franklin also thoroughly enjoyed debating. He had one particular friend, John Collins, who was especially intelligent and eloquent in his arguments.
Benjamin enjoyed debating John at the time. However, Benjamin suggested his son William should avoid following the nasty habits Benjamin had at that age. One debate Benjamin recalls being particularly divisive was one on the appropriateness of educating women. Collins believed it to be improper. Ahead of his time, Franklin took the opposing view.
Benjamin agreed with his father and this motivated him to become a better writer. Benjamin also fell in love with the Socratic Method. Another way in which Benjamin Franklin was willing to challenge the social norm of his time was his vegetarianism. At the age of 16, Franklin read a book by Tryon. This book recommended a vegetarian lifestyle based on a mantra of pacifism and non-violence to all species. This convinced Benjamin to become a vegetarian.
His brother James found this inconvenient. However, Benjamin tactically managed to acquire half of the money James spent on his food each week. Hence, Benjamin could buy and prepare his food himself, while the other half was spent on buying books. Franklin started a religious sect with Keimer, his boss. Franklin was willing to accept some points he disagreed with, including not shaving and keeping the 7th day of the week as a sabbath.
He accepted these points as long as Keimer agreed vegetarianism was part of the religion. Keimer agreed, but gave up after 3 months when he decided to order a whole roast pig. Staying in printing, Benjamin had received a job working for Keimer. He was then lied to by a governor, Sir William Keith. William Keith offered to help set Benjamin up as a sole printer. However, Benjamin is left in London with no money or means to return to America.
He manages to find work in another printing shop, Watts. This shop allows him to make some important connections and earn enough money to return to America with his friend, Mr. Denham, who will provide him with work upon returning to America. He and his business partner, Hugh Meredith, are relatively successful and are given contracts to print paper money. The business continues to grow during this time and Franklin then marries his childhood sweetheart, Deborah Read.
The society works together to produce a subscription library of books on philosophical and scientific subjects. This section of the book stops at this point, with Franklin stopping his writing due to the onset of the American Revolution. This letter would have been a dangerous one to write, due to the potential of it falling into British hands.
He described how this work must be continued and distributed to the masses. This is a point also raised by Benjamin Vaughan. Vaughan believed Franklin should finish his work on the history of his life for three reasons:. Additionally, this half intertwines these beliefs with events in his life. As nations get corrupt and vicious, they have more need of masters.
In this half of the autobiography, Franklin speaks about the list of virtues that he focuses on daily. Although he believes in God, he does not go to church and decides to pray by himself. He does not believe he is learning moral virtue through the preachers on a Sunday. Instead, he developed a list of virtues based on limiting harm to others. He believed that the best way to serve God was to do good to man. He stated that actions are not immoral because religions forbid them, but those religions forbid them because the actions themselves are hurtful.
He hoped to eventually publish these virtues under the title the Art of Virtue, but this never happens. Franklin sought out moral perfection and improvement through developing definitions of his thirteen virtues:.
Instead of focusing on each of these at one time, Franklin would focus on one virtue per week for 13 weeks. The order of these virtues is also deliberate. He believed that success in one virtue in this order would support the success of the next virtue. He would create charts around these virtues, tracking all his failures within each realm of virtue with a dot.
He wanted to eventually have a chart clear of any marks. At the time of writing this half, Franklin believes that all his happiness is based on pursuing this plan of virtues.
Specifically, he believes he owes his:. Franklin also provided an outline of his daily schedule, based on one of his notebooks.
The order of the day is as such:. At this point in time, Franklin was living in Philadelphia. Both of these were hugely successful. In his journalism he refused to include libel or gossip, or even private altercations. Other printers were not like this and attempted to take advantage of these approaches for profit.
He encountered two preachers who helped him further develop his thoughts surrounding virtues: Samuel Hemphill and George Whitefield. He invented the lightning rod, which protects buildings from being impacted by lightning. Then, as a way of solving his own vision problems, Franklin invented the bifocal lens.
Nearly sixty years separate the earliest writings from the latest, an interval during which Franklin was continually balancing between the puritan values of his upbringing and the modern American world to which his career served as prologue. For more than seventy years, Penguin has been the leading publisher of classic literature in the English-speaking world. And, most important, here is a newly edited text of one of the most vital and important works of American literature, the Autobiography. As fascinating and as relevant as ever, this timeless collection of writings reveals an extraordinary man whose mind was always curious, always questioning, and who forever remained dedicated to the principles of truth and liberty. Find books coming soon in Sign in.
Created by the original team behind SparkNotes, LitCharts are the world's best literature guides. The first English edition in in England was actually a retranslation of the French edition, not an edition based on the original English manuscript. One English retranslation triggered yet another retranslation back into French in It is appropriate that Benjamin Franklin is depicted on the U. The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin. Plot Summary. Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4.
The thing that makes Franklin's Autobiography different from every other life story He changed the plan to meet his new purpose of writing to benefit the young.
Ebooks by Benjamin Franklin. Online library. Justus C.
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The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin is broken down into two main halves. The second half was written several years later, but was ultimately never finished due to his death in
Nearly sixty years separate the earliest writings from the latest, an interval during which Franklin was continually balancing between the puritan values of his upbringing and the modern American world to which his career served as prologue. For more than seventy years, Penguin has been the leading publisher of classic literature in the English-speaking world. And, most important, here is a newly edited text of one of the most vital and important works of American literature, the Autobiography. As fascinating and as relevant as ever, this timeless collection of writings reveals an extraordinary man whose mind was always curious, always questioning, and who forever remained dedicated to the principles of truth and liberty. Find books coming soon in
Беккер прижал лицо к прорези, чтобы лучше видеть. Иди на площадь, взмолился он мысленно. Тень Гиральды падала на площадь, как срубленная гигантская секвойя. Халохот внимательно проследил взглядом всю ее длину.
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Тогда бы время, необходимое для дешифровки, составило двадцать лет. Производственное управление АНБ под руководством заместителя оперативного директора коммандера Тревора Дж. Стратмора торжествовало победу. ТРАНСТЕКСТ себя оправдал. В интересах сохранения в тайне этого успеха коммандер Стратмор немедленно организовал утечку информации о том, что проект завершился полным провалом.
The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin is the traditional name for the unfinished record of his own life written by Benjamin Franklin from to ; however, Franklin himself appears to have called the work his Memoirs.Reply
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America was seen by Europeans as a place of possibility from the first and none better than Benjamin Franklin proved these democratic dreams could become reality, recent biographers seeing him as the first American.Reply
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