standard rules and all rules of chess pdf

Standard rules and all rules of chess pdf

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A Brief History of the Game

Chess revision: acquiring the rules of chess variants through FOL theory revision from examples


Opening principles

The game of chess derived from the two-player Indian war game Chatarung , which dates back to A. Chatarung eventually spread to Europe, where it developed much of the colorful imagery that we see in the game today. The rules of movement eventually changed to allow a more expedited version of play — presumptively the long-range movements of several pieces — and these new rules were promulgated and standardized as the game grew in popularity. The game of chess is a two-player strategy board game. A standard chessboard has 64 squares of alternating light and dark shades, arranged on a grid of eight by eight.

A Brief History of the Game

ChessCentral is where you can learn the official chess rules. Learning the rules of chess game will of course lead to the better enjoyment of any chess game.

You will find all the chess rules here so that you can begin to play chess games and rule the board! The Rules of Chess The chess game and its rules has a history that at all times has awakened interest but of which very little is known. We know some fables treating of the origin of the game, fables that are true to history only in so far as they lay the place of origin in Asia and the time of origin in a very distant past.

Games similar to Chess have been discovered on Egyptian sculptures. Written documents, a thousand years old, referring to Chess, have been found. The game of Chess of those days was not, however, the game that we now know. No doubt, Chess has undergone many changes and who knows whether Draughts, or, more precisely, a game related to Draughts, was not a forefather of our Chess. The European career of Chess began a thousand years ago.

At that time it was an admired favorite in Spain, the game of the noble and the learned. In feudal castles and at the courts of princes it was cultivated; it was praised in artistic poems.

For centuries it remained the aristocratic, noble, royal game, accessible only to a refined taste. Later, it penetrated through Italy and France, and at last it found a home wherever the foot of the white man trod. Chess, as pointed out, has changed, but in its attire, in its forms only, by no means in its essence, its idea. That has remained unchanged all through the many centuries of its life. To discover this idea is therefore not difficult: at all times Chess has had the will, the intent, the meaning of picturing a war between two parties: a war of extinction, conducted according to rules, laws, in a cultured manner, yet without clemency.

This becomes evident from the rules of the game almost at first sight. The Chess Board Let's start chess rules by looking at the chess board. The most ancient and most enduring feature of Chess is certainly the board, the table upon which it is played on the field of the Chess struggle. It consists of 64 parts everyone a small square, in their totality composing a large square. In eight rows and, perpendicularly thereto, in eight lines the 64 squares are ordered.

Consequently one can draw a Chessboard by halving the side of a big square three times in succession. The technical process of producing a Chessboard is therefore very simple, and the logical conception, neither is apprehension of the board complicated.

The perception of the 64 squares by the eye is no so easy, but it has been facilitated by the use of color. The squares are alternately colored black and white, so that from time immemorial the Chessboard looks as follows:. It is of importance that the student of Chess should know the board very accurately; he should be able to visualize each square in its individual position as well as in its relations to its neighboring squares.

For this reason the board has been divided into three regions: the middle and the two wings. The left wing is composed of the first and second line to the left, the right wing in the same way by the two extreme lines on the right hand, and the middle is formed by the four remaining lines, the third, fourth, fifth and sixth. In the center of this middle, four squares are situated, which form the intersection of the fourth and fifth line with the fourth and fifth row. These four squares in the center of the board have, for strategic purposes, the greatest significance.

To describe the events on the Chessboard briefly and exactly, a name has been given to every one of the 64 squares; in olden times a descriptive name, in our time, where the science of Nature and of Mathematics has become so prominent, a mathematical name. This mathematical name reminds us of a system of coordinates in the manner as introduced by Descartes.

Accordingly, the eight lines, running upwards, are successively designated by the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and the eight rows running from left to right, are successively designated by the letters a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h. The "a" line, "b" line, through the "h" line is therefore a certain line; the first row, second row, through the eighth row is a certain row.

Since each square belongs to one line and to one row only, its line and row unambiguously designate it. For instance, "b5" is that one square on the b file that belongs to the fifth row. According to custom the letter precedes the number: one writes b5, never 5b. Thus this notation has the advantage of naming each square without ambiguity. Of the other notation, the descriptive one, which is in use in many countries and also in the Anglo-Saxon world, we shall speak more fully later on.

In the mathematical notation, the division of the board described above would read as follows: the left wing "a" and "b" files, the right wing "g" and "h" files, the middle c, d, e, f line, the center d4, d5, e4, e5. The boundary of the board is formed by the "a" file, the "h" file, the first rank, the eighth rank. The corners are a1, a8, h1, and h8. The student should endeavor to acquire the habit of designating the squares and of visualizing their position. There are many Chess players who fail merely from their incapacity to master this geometrical task, not suspecting its value.

The White pieces form the one side, the Black pieces the antagonistic side. The two sides are briefly called White and Black. The coloring of the piece therefore determines its obedience and fidelity, unconditionally. A piece never deserts to the enemy, nor does it ever rebel; it is faithful unto death. True, if it falls in combat, it wanders from the board merely into a box where the captured pieces are kept until the next game; then it celebrates a merry and hopeful resurrection.

White and Black have equal forces. Either party, therefore, counts sixteen pieces. The pieces stand on the board until they are captured, each piece on one square, no two pieces on the game square.

At the start of the game the pieces are placed in a determined position shown hereafter, and then they are moved, the players moving alternately. Thus a struggle of the Chess pieces takes place according to determinate rules, until the King of a party is captured by force or the contestants agree upon a drawn issue. The pieces are usually carved of wood.

The King has the appearance of a crowned monarch, the Queen bears a smaller crown, the Rooks or Castles suggest sturdy castles, the Bishops have a characteristic headdress, the Knights show a horse's head, and the Pawn is like a man without distinction, a man of the crowd, a common soldier. The move consists in transferring a piece from one square to another. White "moves" a white piece, Black a black one. Sometimes two pieces are thus put into motion, namely, when a hostile piece is "captured," i.

All of this is executed according to fixed rules which the player is constrained to obey. Chess Rules for Moving The King moves from its square to a neighboring square, the Rook in its line or row, the Bishop diagonally, the Queen may move like a Rook or a Bishop, the Knight jumps in making the shortest move that is not a straight one, and the Pawn moves one square straight ahead.

But such moves are permitted only if the square upon which the piece lands is empty or occupied by a hostile piece. Moreover, the Rook, Bishop and Queen are obstructed in their motion as soon as they strike an occupied square. Thus, a Bishop on c1 may go to any square in the diagonal c1, d2, e3, f4, g5, h6 unless one of these squares is occupied; if e3 is occupied, f4, g5, and h6 are obstructed and the Bishop may not be moved there.

The Rook, Bishop or Queen, however, can "capture" the obstruction, provided it is a hostile piece, by putting the moving piece on the square occupied by the obstruction and removing the latter into the box.

Also, the other pieces, King, Knight and Pawn, may capture hostile men; the King or the Knight, whenever they have the right to move to the square held by the hostile man, the Pawn, however, not thus but with a diagonal move forward to a neighboring square. All pieces are subject to capture except the King. Its life is sacred, the player must defend it, it perishes only when no possible resource can save it from capture.

Whenever that occurs the game is at an end; the player who cannot save his King from capture, is "Checkmate", and loses the game. These rules are not complete, besides they are too brief so that the reader cannot be expected to obtain a clear conception through them, but they serve as an initial step in that they produce a vivid impression of the Chess struggle. We shall now consider them in detail and at length in order to illuminate the various logical consequences that come thereby into play.

The King in Chess The King may move from the square it occupies to any square satisfying the following conditions:. A neighbor to the square of occupation. Not occupied by a man of its own party. Not menaced by any hostile piece. Once during the game the King may violate the first of these rules, namely, in Castling, otherwise never.

In Castling, the King is moved TWO squares to the Right or Left, as the case may be, and the Rook towards which the King has moved is then placed upon the square which the King jumped over.

But this move is not permitted when:. The King is in "Check," i. The King or Rook has already made a move. The move of the Rook is obstructed. The King or Rook after Castling would be exposed to capture. It may go there, because firstly, that square is neighbor to c2; secondly it is not occupied by a man of its own party but a hostile one; and thirdly, the square b2 is not menaced by any enemy, neither the Black King nor the Black Rook, nor the Black Pawn in their present positions being able to capture a piece on b2.

On the other hand, the White King could make no other move; it cannot move to b1 or d1, on account of the Black Rook, nor to b3 or d3, on account of the Black Pawn, nor to d2 because of the White Pawn standing there, still less to c1, where two slayers would await it, nor to c3, which is menaced by Bishop b2 and obstructed by a White Pawn besides.

To other squares it cannot move since they are not neighbors to its present residence. The reader may demonstrate that in the next position also the Black King has only one possible move, namely, to g7. Black to move. His King is "Checked" because menaced by the White Queen. The King cannot capture the Queen since g7 is threatened by Pawn f6; the King can go nowhere else for the White Queen threatens its place of refuge; the White Queen can be captured by no Black piece.

The two Kings and the four Rooks still stand where they stood at the commencement of the game. Let us suppose that hitherto none of these pieces has moved. White, if he has the move, can Castle with Rook h1 by placing it on fl and simultaneously jumping with King to g1; or he can Castle with Rook a1 by placing it on dl and jumping with King to c1. Black, if it is his turn to move, can Castle with Rook as, whereby King and Rook occupy the squares c8, d8 respectively.

In practice the player will be well advised always to move the K first and then his R when making this move. The Rook or "Castle" in Chess In the position below the Rook at c2 has the following possible moves:. The c2 Rook may move to b2, d2, e2, f2 and capture at g2. It cannot go to c1 or c3 because it is under obligation to guard its King against the White Rook g2.

The Rook c4 can go to a4 or b4 or d4 or capture e4 but cannot capture f4 because Rook e4 is an obstruction; it may also go to c8, c7, c6, c5 or c3 but not to c2 or c1 owing to the obstruction of Rook c2.

Chess revision: acquiring the rules of chess variants through FOL theory revision from examples

No matter whether you are a complete newbie to chess, or looking to develop your game, this is the ideal place to start. The information in this section outlines all the strategies and tactics of chess rules in a simple format that's easy to understand. How do all the different chess pieces work? The chessmen pieces have different board movements with differing powers. Checkmate is the ultimate goal of every chess player.

In this section we will lay down a set of rules to follow in the opening stages of the game. While there are exceptions to every rule in chess, you need to be quite a strong player before you're truly ready to decide which ones to break. Until then, you should treat these rules like laws of nature - break them at your peril! This is the absolute number 1 most important rule of the opening. In chess, Development means moving your pieces out from their starting squares ready for battle. Many players make the mistake of only bringing out one or two pieces and moving them around, and only bringing out reinforcements when the first few get stuck or captured. In chess, you need all your pieces in play to have the best chance of winning.

ChessCentral is where you can learn the official chess rules. Learning the rules of chess game will of course lead to the better enjoyment of any chess game. You will find all the chess rules here so that you can begin to play chess games and rule the board! The Rules of Chess The chess game and its rules has a history that at all times has awakened interest but of which very little is known. We know some fables treating of the origin of the game, fables that are true to history only in so far as they lay the place of origin in Asia and the time of origin in a very distant past.

The following are the standard rules of chess as applied in World The Laws of Chess cannot cover all possible situations that may arise during a game.


It's never too late to learn how to play chess - the most popular game in the world! Learning the rules of chess is easy:. At the beginning of the game the chessboard is laid out so that each player has the white or light color square in the bottom right-hand side.

IchessU provides live online chess lessons for kids and for adults, with specialized chess courses from beginners to experienced advanced chess players. The chess lessons are available in groups and as private lessons. IchessU coaches have taught the game to thousands of children and adults all over the world, many of whom have gone on to win major tournaments. IchessU chess school is your best online resource to learn chess, improve your chess game or just have fun! Schedule Evaluation Lesson at IchessU.

They are arranged just like in regular Chess, except for two Pawns, which are moved forward as shown on the board left. These two Pawns are typically moved first by experienced players, in order to clear the way for the more powerful pieces behind them to move. Shuffle the deck of cards thoroughly and place face down in the center compartment of the tray, forming the draw pile. Players alternate white first turning over the top card on the draw pile and placing it face up on their discard pile compartment of the tray closest to you.

Opening principles

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Chess revision: acquiring the rules of chess variants through FOL theory revision from examples

The rules of chess also known as the laws of chess are rules governing the play of the game of chess. While the exact origins of chess are unclear, modern rules first took form during the Middle Ages. The rules continued to be slightly modified until the early 19th century, when they reached essentially their current form. The rules also varied somewhat from place to place.

Chess Rules for Kids & Beginners

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This is an explanation of the rules of chess. I love the game, and I wanted to do my own illustrated tutorial. I know that there are other Chess Instructables, and I hope that this will add to the growing Instructables chess community. I tried to explain as much as I could using illustrations. If the written directions are confusing, take a look at the pictures.

ГЛАВА 22 Дэвид Беккер быстро подошел к койке и посмотрел на спящего старика. Правое запястье в гипсе. На вид за шестьдесят, может быть, около семидесяти. Белоснежные волосы аккуратно зачесаны набок, в центре лба темно-красный рубец, тянущийся к правому глазу. Ничего себе маленькая шишка, - подумал Беккер, вспомнив слова лейтенанта. Посмотрел на пальцы старика - никакого золотого кольца.

Для урана используется ружейный детонатор, для плутония нужен взрыв. Это не числа, такие различия нас не касаются. - Работайте, - поторопил Фонтейн. На ВР последняя стена стала уже тоньше яичной скорлупы. Джабба поднял брови. - Хорошо, это ничего не дает. Начнем вычитание.


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    The Laws of Chess cannot cover all possible situations that may arise during a game, nor can Too detailed a rule might deprive the arbiter of his freedom of games rules are needed for castling, because the standard rules presume initial.

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