File Name: advantages and disadvantages of ion exchange method .zip
At APEC, we strive to provide the best drinking water available to everyone. Even if it means offering a free system to those in need. The ion exchange filtration is one of the most common water filtration methods. Ion exchange process percolates water through bead-like spherical resin materials ion-exchange resins. Ions in the water are exchanged for other ions fixed to the beads. The two most common ion-exchange methods are softening and deionization. Softening is used primarily as a pretreatment method to reduce water hardness prior to reverse osmosis RO processing.
All natural waters contain, in various concentrations, dissolved salts which dissociate in water to form charged ions. Positively charged ions are called cations; negatively charged ions are called anions. Ionic impurities can seriously affect the reliability and operating efficiency of a boiler or process system. Overheating caused by the buildup of scale or deposits formed by these impurities can lead to catastrophic tube failures, costly production losses, and unscheduled downtime. Hardness ions, such as calcium and magnesium, must be removed from the water supply before it can be used as boiler feedwater.
In precipitation process, large volumes of sludge are generated which can present dewatering and disposal problems , as well as re-carbonation of the softened water are needed . Ion-exchange resin have been widely used to remove calcium and magnesium ions due to their many advantages, such as high capacity and fast kinetics . However, ion-exchange resins must be regenerated by chemical reagents when they are saturated and the regeneration can cause serious secondary pollution. In large scale, application of resin is expensive . In recent years, various method such as nanofiltration [15, 16], capacitive deionization , electrodialysis , electrochemical treatment  and, adsorption [20, 21] have been widely studied for ions removal from aqueous solution, especially water softening. Solubility matters since organic compounds tend to not be soluble in aqueous solvents, but ionic salts do easily dissolve in water. And acidity matters since we can adjust the base strength to only react with one component of Excedrin at a time, allowing for the components to be isolated.
Ion exchange usually describes a processes of purification of aqueous solutions using solid polymeric ion exchange resin. More precisely, the term encompasses a large variety of processes where ions are exchanged between two electrolytes. Although the term usually refers to applications of synthetic man-made resins, it can include many other materials such as soil. Typical ion exchangers are ion-exchange resins functionalized porous or gel polymer , zeolites , montmorillonite , clay , and soil humus. Ion exchangers are either cation exchangers , which exchange positively charged ions cations , or anion exchangers , which exchange negatively charged ions anions.
Ion exchange is widely used for water treatment in both industrial and municipal water treatment systems. The process provides many advantages over other treatment methods. It is environment friendly, can provide high flow rate of treated water and has low maintenance cost.
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Calcium and magnesium ions are atoms having a positive electrical charge, as do sodium and potassium ions. Ions of the same charge can be exchanged. In the ion exchange process, a granular substance usually a resin that is coated with sodium or potassium ions comes into contact with water containing calcium and magnesium ions. Two positively charged sodium or potassium ions are exchanged released into the water for every calcium or magnesium ion that is held by the resin.
Resin beads used in ion exchange water purification must be treated, or regenerated, for continued use. Ion exchange is a water treatment process commonly used for water softening or demineralization, but it also is used to remove other substances from the water in processes such as dealkalization, deionization, denitrification , and disinfection.
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