letter of credit and its types pdf

Letter of credit and its types pdf

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Letters of credit

What is Letter of Credit? Types, Characteristics, Importance

Letter of Credit

Letters of credit

A letter of credit LC , also known as a documentary credit or bankers commercial credit , or letter of undertaking LoU , is a payment mechanism used in international trade to provide an economic guarantee from a creditworthy bank to an exporter of goods.

Letters of credit are used extensively in the financing of international trade , where the reliability of contracting parties cannot be readily and easily determined. Its economic effect is to introduce a bank as an underwriter , where it assumes the counterparty risk of the buyer paying the seller for goods.

The letter of credit has been used in Europe since ancient times. The International Chamber of Commerce oversaw the preparation of the first Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits UCP in , creating a voluntary framework for commercial banks to apply to transactions worldwide.

In the late 19th century and early 20th century, travelers commonly carried a circular letter of credit issued by a relationship bank, which allowed the beneficiary to withdraw cash from other banks along their journey. This type of letter of credit was eventually replaced by traveler's checks , credit cards and automated teller machines. Although letters of credit first existed only as paper documents, they were regularly issued by telegraph in the late 19th century, and by telex in the latter half of the 20th century.

UCP Revision regulates common market practice within the letter of credit market. These are crucial to understanding the role financial institutions play within.

These include:. A letter of credit is an important payment method in international trade. It is particularly useful where the buyer and seller may not know each other personally and are separated by distance, differing laws in each country, and different trading customs.

It does this by ensuring that the seller is paid for presenting the documents which are specified in the contract for sale between the buyer and the seller. That is to say, a letter of credit is a payment method used to discharge the legal obligations for payment from the buyer to the seller, by having a bank pay the seller directly.

Thus, the seller relies on the credit risk of the bank, rather than the buyer, to receive payment. As will be seen, and is observed in Image 2, the bank will pay the seller the value of the goods when the seller provides negotiable instruments , documents which themselves represent the goods.

In the event that the buyer is unable to make payment on the purchase, the seller may make a demand for payment on the bank. The bank will examine the beneficiary's demand and if it complies with the terms of the letter of credit, will honor the demand.

Banks will typically require collateral from the purchaser for issuing a letter of credit and will charge a fee which is often a percentage of the amount covered by the letter of credit. Several categories of LC's exist which seek to operate in different markets and solve different issues.

An example of these include:. Additionally, a letter of credit may also have specific terms relating to the payment conditions which relate to the underlying reference documents. Some of these include. The exporter has the right to make the credit available to one or more subsequent beneficiaries. Credits are made transferable when the original beneficiary is a "middleman", who does not supply the documents himself, but procures either goods or documents from other suppliers and arranges them to be sent to the issuing bank.

A letter of credit can be transferred to the second beneficiary at the request of the first beneficiary only if it expressly states that the letter of credit is "transferable". A bank is not obligated to transfer a credit. It can further be transferred to more than one alternate beneficiary as long as it allows partial shipments. The terms and conditions of the original credit must be replicated exactly in the transferred credit.

However, to keep the workability of the transferable letter of credit, some figures can be reduced or curtailed, including:. The first beneficiary may demand from the transferring bank to substitute for the applicant.

However, if a document other than the invoice must be issued in a way to show the applicant's name, in such a case that requirement must indicate that in the transferred credit it will be free. Transferred credit cannot be transferred again to a third beneficiary at the request of the second beneficiary. In some cases, the middleman does not want the buyer and supplier to know each other. The middleman is entitled to substitute his own invoice for the supplier's and acquire the difference as profit.

Typically, after a sales contract has been negotiated, and the buyer and seller have agreed that a letter of credit will be used as the method of payment, the Applicant will contact a bank to ask for a letter of credit to be issued.

Once the issuing bank has assessed the buyer's credit risk — i. Once the Beneficiary the seller receives the letter of credit, it will check the terms to ensure that it matches with the contract and will either arrange for shipment of the goods or ask for an amendment to the letter of credit so that it meets with the terms of the contract. The letter of credit is limited in terms of time, the validity of credit, the last date of shipment, and in terms of how much late after shipment the documents may be presented to the Nominated Bank.

Once the goods have been shipped, the Beneficiary will present the requested documents to the Nominated Bank. If the documents do not comply with the terms of the letter of credit they are considered Discrepant. At this point, the Nominated Bank will inform the Beneficiary of the discrepancy and offer a number of options depending on the circumstances after consent of applicant.

However, such a discrepancy must be more than trivial. Refusal cannot depend on anything other than reasonable examination of the documents themselves. The bank then must rely on the fact that there was, in fact, a material mistake. A wrong date such as an early delivery date was held by English courts to not be a material mistake.

Documents presented after the time limits mentioned in the credit, however, are considered discrepant. If the corrected documents cannot be supplied in time, the documents may be forwarded directly to the issuing bank "in trust"; effectively in the hope that the Applicant will accept the documents. Documents forwarded in trust remove the payment security of a letter of credit so this route must only be used as a last resort.

Some banks will offer to "Telex for Approval" or similar. This is where the Nominated Bank holds the documents, but sends a message to the Issuing Bank asking if discrepancies are acceptable. To receive payment, an exporter or shipper must present the documents required by the LC. Typically the letter of credit will request an original bill of lading as the use of a title document such as this is critical to the functioning of the Letter of Credit.

Typical types of documents in such contracts might include: [10]. The range of documents that may be requested by the applicant is vast, and varies considerably by country and commodity.

Several methods of verifying the documents exist, each provides different variations of risk to the fact that the documents are legitimate. A Documentary Credit provides security for both buyer and seller. Outlined in the UCP , the bank will give an undertaking or promise , on behalf of buyer who is often the applicant to pay the beneficiary the value of the goods shipped if acceptable documents are submitted and if the stipulated terms and conditions are strictly complied with.

The buyer can be confident that the goods he is expecting only will be received since it will be evidenced in the form of certain documents, meeting the specified terms and conditions.

The supplier finds his confidence in the fact that if such stipulations are met, he will receive payment from the issuing bank, who is independent of the parties to the contract. In some cases, a letter of credit will require the documents to be collected. Other forms of effected payment is the direct payment where the supplier ships the goods and waits for the buyer to remit the bill, on open account terms. Letters of Credit are often used in international transactions to ensure that payment will be received where the buyer and seller may not know each other and are operating in different countries.

In this case, the seller is exposed to a number of risks such as credit risk , and legal risk caused by the distance, differing laws and difficulty in knowing each party personally.

The payment will be obtained for nonexistent or worthless merchandise against presentation by the beneficiary of forged or falsified documents. There is the possibility that performance of a documentary credit may be disturbed by legal action relating directly to the parties and their rights and obligations under the documentary credit or performance may be prevented by government action outside the control of the parties.

Alternatively, performance of a contract — including an obligation under a documentary credit relationship — could also be prevented by external factors such as natural disasters or armed conflicts. These risks, however, are often seen as secondary to the risk of non-payment. Several risks could relate to the parties of the applicant themselves. These may include situations where there is a non-delivery of Goods, Short shipment , the goods are of inferior quality, are damaged, or are late.

The applicant is also exposed to the failure of the bank to make payment. The issuing bank is also exposed to risks which he may seek to mitigate through various techniques.

He will be exposed to the insolvency risk of the applicant, that is, the risk the applicant runs insolvent before he is able to repay the letter of credit. Secondly, the bank will be exposed to a risk of fraud by the seller, who may provide incorrect or falsified documents to receive payment. If the bank ought to have known that the documents were a fraud, then the bank will be exposed to a fraud. The beneficiary will be exposed to the risk of its own failure to comply with credit conditions or failure of, or delays in payment from, the issuing bank.

These risks are considered remote. Crucially, the beneficiary is not exposed to the risks of set-off by the applicant where the goods are damaged or are of inferior quality. While he may be sued by the applicant at a later point, the issuing bank cannot reduce the payment owed to correspond with the damage occurred.

This is crucial in mitigating the risk to insolvency. Crucial to a letter of credit is the beneficiary's the seller attempt to isolate itself from the credit risk of the buyer. That is to say, it is concerned primarily with the ability of the buyer to pay for the goods. Issuance charges, covering negotiation, reimbursements and other charges are paid by the applicant or as per the terms and conditions of the LC.

If the LC does not specify charges, they are paid by the Applicant. Charge-related terms are indicated in field 71B. The fundamental principle of all letters of credit is that letters of credit deal with documents and not with goods. The payment obligation is independent from the underlying contract of sale or any other contract in the transaction. So, for example, where party 'A' enters into an agreement to purchase goods from party 'B', Party 'A' will engage with their bank to create a letter of credit.

The specified documents are often bills of lading or other 'documentary intangibles' which 'A' and 'B' have previously specified in their original contract.

The actions available to the buyer arising out of the sale contract do not concern the bank and in no way affect its liability. This is confirmed within the market-practice documents stated by Article 5 of UCP As is a core tenet of Financial law , market practice comprises a substantial portion of how parties behave.

Accordingly, if the documents tendered by the beneficiary or their agent are in order, then, in general, the bank is obliged to pay without further qualifications. As a result, it is the issuing bank who bears the risk that is linked with non-payment of the buyer.

This is advantageous because the issuing bank often has a personal banking relationship with the buyer. The whole commercial purpose for which the system of confirmed irrevocable documentary credits has been developed in international trade is to give to the seller an assured right to be paid before he parts with control of the goods under sale. It further does not permit of any dispute with the buyer as to the performance of the contract of sale being used as a ground for non-payment or reduction or deferment of payment.

The only exception to this may be fraud.

What is Letter of Credit? Types, Characteristics, Importance

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There are five commonly used types of letter of credit. Each has different features and some are more secure than others. Sometimes a letter of credit may combine two types, such as 'confirmed' and 'irrevocable'. A revocable letter of credit is uncommon because it can be changed or cancelled by the bank that issued it at any time and for any reason. An irrevocable letter of credit cannot be changed or cancelled unless everyone involved agrees. Irrevocable letters of credit provide more security than revocable ones.


As mentioned above, a letter of credit can be of various types depending on its purpose. It is in the interest of both the buyer and the seller, to understand all the​.


Letter of Credit

A Letter of credit is issued on different terms and hence a letter of credit is also of different types as explained below. A documentary letter of credit specifies the various documents which are required to be produced by the exporter to the importer. Normally, the documents specified in the documentary letter of credit are commercial invoice, bill of lading , insurance policy, consular invoice, certificate of origin, certificate of quality analysis, packing list, document of title to goods, bill of exchange , etc.

A letter of credit is a bank undertaking of payment separate from the sales or other contracts on which it is based. It is a way of reducing the payment risks associated with the movement of goods. Letters of credit are usually negotiable. The issuing bank is obligated to pay not only the beneficiary but also any bank nominated by the beneficiary. Negotiable instruments are passed freely from one party to another almost in the same way as money.

 Абсолютно. Такая красивая женщина пошла бы с этим типом, только если бы ей хорошо заплатили. Боже. Такой жирный.

5 comments

  • Syed T. 18.11.2020 at 18:52

    Letters of Credit LC are widely used in international practice for convenience of international trade transactions and elimination of possible risks.

    Reply
  • Emerson L. 19.11.2020 at 09:37

    Actively scan device characteristics for identification.

    Reply
  • MariГ©n B. 20.11.2020 at 03:51

    There are various types of letter of credit LC prevails in the trade transactions.

    Reply
  • Oreocupcake 20.11.2020 at 17:47

    Commercial (documentary) letters of credit (LC) are a written STEP 2 - The buyer applies to his bank for a letter of credit, signing the bank's Types of Drafts​.

    Reply
  • Elrenriepers 23.11.2020 at 12:42

    A letter of credit LC , also known as a documentary credit or bankers commercial credit , or letter of undertaking LoU , is a payment mechanism used in international trade to provide an economic guarantee from a creditworthy bank to an exporter of goods.

    Reply

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