nigerian foreign policy and economic development since independence pdf

Nigerian foreign policy and economic development since independence pdf

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Alternative Perceptions and Projections

Foreign relations of Indonesia

Alternative Perceptions and Projections

Bureau of African Affairs. From to , Nigeria experienced a series of military coups, excluding the short-lived second republic between and The month long civil war, which ended in January , resulted in million casualties.

Alternative Perceptions and Projections

I would also like to thank Ministry of External Affairs for deputing me to deliver the Talk under its prestigious Distinguished Lecture Series Programme. And finally I will touch upon the foreign policy Priorities and Challenges ahead of us. Foreign Policy and Diplomacy: Definition: I do not wish to burden you with the complicated definitions of Foreign Policy as offered by eminent scholars and prominent political scientists.

As a practitioner, I look at Foreign Policy as a framework within which the Government of a given country conducts its relations with the outside world in different formats i.

Broadly, Diplomacy can be political, economic or cultural, and ideally should work in tandem. As a rule the diplomacy is pursued through established diplomatic channels and mechanisms. It may or may not always be transparent and in public knowledge. At times It can be pursued through back-door channels or through informal Track 1. In our case it includes for instance: securing our borders to protect territorial integrity, countering cross-border terrorism, energy security, food security, cyber security, creation of world class infrastructure, non-discriminatory global trade practices, equitable global responsibility for the protection of environment, reform of institutions of global governance to reflect the contemporary realities, disarmament, regional stability, international peace and so on.

In order to sustain its growth trajectory, India needs substantial external inputs. One of the major objectives is to engage them and derive maximum benefits from their presence abroad, while at the same time protecting their interests to the extent possible. In short, our Foreign policy has at least four important goals : 1. In the implementation of its foreign policy India, however, invariably adheres to a set of basic principles on which no compromise is made.

Mutual non-aggression, iii. Mutual non-interference, iv. Equality and mutual benefit, and v. Peaceful co-existence. In other words the entire world community is a part of one single large global family and the Members of the family must live together in peace and harmony , work and grow together and have trust in each other for mutual benefits. India is Opposed to Export of Ideologies and Change of Regimes India believes in and supports Democracy; however, India does not believe in the export of ideologies.

India has therefore endeavoured to deal with the government-of-the-day, be it a democracy, monarchy or military dictatorship. India believes that it is best left to the people of the country to choose or remove their leaders and retain or change the form of governance. By extension of the above principle, India does not endorse the idea of regime change or violation of territorial integrity in a particular country by use of force or other means by another country or a group of countries.

At the same time, India does not hesitate in promoting democracy wherever potential exists; this is done by proactively providing assistance in capacity building and strengthening the institutions of democracy, albeit with the explicit consent of the concerned Government. India therefore contributes only to such Peace-Keeping military operations which are part of the UN Peace-keeping Forces.

India has contributed nearly , troops, the largest number from any country, participated in more than 49 missions and Indian peacekeepers have made the supreme sacrifice while serving in UN missions. Mind it: intervention is qualitatively different from interference, particularly when the intervention is made at the request of the country concerned.

It believes that violent retaliation and confrontation can only complicate the matters. War is no solution; after every war the conflicting Parties ultimately come to negotiating table by which time much damage has already been done. This applies in particular to Pakistan- the origin of State-sponsored terrorism targeted at India. Strong and loud messages emanate from India each and every time our patience is tested. The Surgical strike to target terrorist —launch pads in Pakistan occupied Indian territory in September is one such example.

Air Strike at terrorist camps in Balakote in February in retaliation to Pulwama terrorist attack is yet another example. India thus believes in Partnerships and shuns Alliances, particularly military alliances.

There were a record number of high-level incoming and outgoing visits at the level of President, Prime Minister, Vice-President, External Affairs Minister and Ministers. In some cases, including our neighbourhood, visits at the level of Prime Minister took place after a hiatus of ten to sixty years. It helped a qualitative upgrade in existing bilateral relationships and enhanced coordination on a range of regional and global issues.

It revitalised and reinvigorated relations and at the same time opened new doors for mutually nourishing partnerships in a wide array of areas. These asymmetries have caused historically a sense of trust deficit in the region vis-a-vis India. The core objective was to address the trust deficit, reset relations and build bridges of friendship and understanding thorough mutually beneficial cooperation.

In fact the initiative by the new Government to reach out our neighbours was taken even before Mr Modi formally took over as Prime Minister. The invitation sent a loud and clear message that the new political dispensation in India attached great importance to its relations with its neighbours in South Asia and in the integration of the region.

The occasion provided an excellent opportunity to establish initial contacts; these were followed up through exchange of visits or meetings on the side lines of regional and international conferences. It has been in existence for several decades and yet South Asia remains the least integrated region in the world. Later in May , India launched the South Asia Satellite - a communication satellite built by ISRO to provide a variety of communication services over the South Asian region; the satellite was launched despite reservations by Pakistan.

The project will touch the lives of the people even in remote areas of our region, through its wide ranging applications in health, education, disaster response, weather forecasting and communications.

Meanwhile, in the backdrop of continued State patronage and sponsorship of cross-border terrorism by Pakistan, India decided to boycott the SAARC Summit which was scheduled to be held in Islamabad ; India was supported in its decision by Bangladesh, Bhutan and Nepal.

In sync with it Neighbourhood First Policy, India made considerable efforts to normalize its strained relations with Pakistan; By the beginning of , it was abundantly clear that the Pakistani Deep State Army and ISI was not interested in the resumption of dialogue and continued to promote and support cross-border terrorism to harm India.

CHINA During the visit of the Chinese President Xi Ping to India in September, , India extended its hand of friendship and conveyed a clear message that the two countries must work together so that the 21st century could belong to Asia. The trajectory of India-China relations, however, did not develop the way India would have liked. The prolonged Doklam face-off between the Indian and Chinese troops in September, posed a serious threat to bilateral relations but was fortunately resolved thanks to skilful use of diplomacy.

The understanding which emerged from the informal summit between PM Modi and President XI Ping in China in April has come to be known as Wuhan Spirit, the essence of which is that the two sides must enhance efforts to build upon the convergences and handle the differences through peaceful discussions, and that peaceful, stable and balanced relations between India and China will be a positive factor for stability amidst current global uncertainties, and further that proper management of the bilateral relationship will be conducive for the development and prosperity of the region, and will create the conditions for the Asian Century.

The Phase-2 began in when the then Foreign Minister Sh. He further added that the new phase also marked a shift from trade to wider economic and security issues, including joint efforts to protect the sea-lanes and coordinate counter-terrorism activities. In , the 20 years of dialogue partnership culminated into Strategic Partnership. As one of its most significant initiative the Indian government set up the Project Development Fund in within the Export and Import Bank of India with a corpus of Rs crore approx.

India is now expected not only to bolster its economic and strategic engagements with the region but also to emerge as a potential security balancer in the region as well. Two big powers : USA and Russia On the whole, the trajectory of relations with USA has been on the ascendency in the last few years except that some irritants have appeared in bilateral relations in the recent past.

The USA would also like India to join hands with USA, Japan, Australia and others in the region to act as net security providers in Indo-Pacific Ocean in matters such as maritime security, freedom of navigation, piracy and disaster management. India has retaliated by imposing higher duties on certain US exports to India.

For a fairly long period of time, Russia was the leading source of defence procurements for India; even now we heavily depend on Russia for new, modern defence equipment and spares of equipment bought earlier. India was quick in rectifying the situation and restoring mutual trust and confidence. Our relations with Russia are now on firm footing and the focus of special and privileged strategic partnership is on defence, energy, space and trade and investments. Diplomacy for Development Economic diplomacy has been employed in the past also to promote trade and economic relations with outside world.

In the past five years, however, there has been unique dovetailing of diplomacy and national aspirations. Hence we now have a dynamic concept; Diplomacy For Development. Intensified engagements with foreign partners have brought visible benefitsthrough enhanced foreign investment and technology tie-ups, leading to the setting up of factories and creation of jobs.

It has been possible to forge foreign collaborations for several flagship schemes such as Skill India, Smart Cities, Make in India, Digital India for creating a new India by Similarly there are commitments to develop Smart Cities in India Non-Prescriptive Development assistance India has devised a policy of non-prescriptive development assistance as its soft power since early s.

China readily extends heavy loans to small, poor and developing countries to develop infrastructure in those countries; these heavily indebted countries find it difficult to service these loans and ultimately end up handing over the ownership of the assets to China. Example: Sri Lanka Hambantota Port In December , unable to pay back a loan that had been used to upgrade a Sri Lankan Port, the Sri Lankan Government had no option but to hand over the seaport and 15, acres of land around it to China for 99 years, giving the nation the outright ownership of a territory a few hundred kilometres off the coast of its competitor, India This is the most cited example of how poor, but strategically important, countries like Sri Lanka are now deeply in debt —trap of China.

India has also set aside a Rs croreCorpus Fund for manufacturinghubs in CMLV countries Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam In addition, India is committed to capacity building in several developing countries across the world through its diverse civil and military training programmes. Connectivity India places a great emphasis on physical and digital connectivity to integrate South Asia and to connect South Asia with other regions particularly South East Asia and Central Asia.

Some of the projects which are of utmost importance include the development of strategically important Chabahar Port which connects India on the one hand with Iran and Afghanistan and on the other with Central Asia, bypassing Pakistan : the common adversary of Afghanistan and India.

Even though India had started talking to Iran in this context in ,the real push from India was given in mid- resulting in the signing of agreements and actual development and inauguration of the first Phase of the Port in December India has since taken over the physical possession and this is the first Port India is operating outside India.

Afghanistan sent its first cargo to India using Zaranj- Chabahar route in February India had earlier sent wheat to Afghanistan end using this Sea route. India has established two direct Air Freight Corridors as reliable alternative supply routes for landlocked Afghanistan. India is funding the construction of the segments in Myanmar.

India has also proposed to link of with Cambodia , Laos and Vietnam. Kaladan Multimodal transport project is yet another project which was moving at a slow pace and was expedited in by allocation of substantial funds. The project seeks to connect India's landlocked North East with mainland India through Myanmar using maritime, inland-water and toad systems. KMMT project when completed will cut short the time for transportation of good from Kolkata to Mizoram by up to four days and cut short the distance by appx.

Expeditious extradition of economic offenders such as Vijay Malaya, Neerav Modi, etc. India is building up its military muscles slowly but steadily. As a large market India is an attractive destination for foreign investments, joint ventures, commodity exports. A certain degree of assertiveness in foreign affairs was visible even during the past five years, when India appeared to punch according to its weight.

To this is linked the aspiration to be a Permanent Member of the expanded UN Security Council for which a large number of countries have already pledged support. I thank you all for your attention and patience. I would also like to thank Professor Shukla for his efforts in organising this event and making my stay here comfortable.

I will be glad to take questions from the audience. Ministry of External Affairs. Distinguished Lectures. India's Foreign Policy: Landmarks, achievements and challenges ahead. To P.

Foreign relations of Indonesia

Nigeria is an important actor on the African and global stage. Its foreign practitioners and analysts often define Nigerian interests as operating within four concentric circles. The degree to which Nigeria may influence the four circles is a matter of debate—the fact that it does is not. It is an active participant in the United Nations and in global international affairs. Nigerian leaders often state their ambitions to play a larger role on the international scene.


Objectives and Principles of Nigeria's Foreign Policy since Independence economic development came the way of Nigeria, although it is arguable whether the.


Alternative Perceptions and Projections

Tanzania has undergone impressive political and economic developments and improvements in social welfare in recent years. However, the country continues to face considerable development challenges, not least in essential areas such as economic distribution, population growth, corruption and a stronger division between party and state. At the same time, new opportunities are arising which have the potential to become decisive for the necessary changes and reforms. Tanzania has been a macro-economic success story for nearly two decades. The rate of economic growth increased from 3.

Since independence, Indonesian foreign relations have adhered to a "free and active" foreign policy, seeking to play a role in regional affairs commensurate with its size and location but avoiding involvement in conflicts among major powers. Indonesian foreign policy under the "New Order" government of President Suharto moved away from the stridently anti-Western, anti-American posturing that characterised the latter part of the Sukarno era. Following Suharto's ouster in , Indonesia's government has preserved the broad outlines of Suharto's independent, moderate foreign policy.

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