File Name: first and second language acquisition .zip
Students acquiring a second language progress through five predictable stages. Effective ELL instruction Reflects students' stages of language acquisition. Helps students move through the language acquisition levels.
Engages ELLs at all stages of language acquisition in higher-level thinking activities. Anyone who has been around children who are learning to talk knows that the process happens in stages—first understanding, then one-word utterances, then two-word phrases, and so on.
How quickly students progress through the stages depends on many factors, including level of formal education, family background, and length of time spent in the country. It is important that you tie instruction for each student to his or her particular stage of language acquisition.
Knowing this information about each student allows you to work within his or her zone of proximal development—that gap between what students can do on their own and what they can with the help of more knowledgeable individuals Vygotsky, Another reason for all teachers to gain insights into their students' stages of second language acquisition is to meet the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act, which requires ELLs to progress in their content knowledge and in their English language proficiency.
How are we going to accomplish this if we are not all responsible for content and language? Complete the "stages" activity in Appendix 4. If time allows, add two more teacher strategies to each stage. When you are finished, answer these questions: Why should we be aware of the stages of language acquisition? What are the implications of the stages for mainstream instruction?
One way for mainstream teachers to engage their ELLs more is by asking tiered questions. We recommend that teachers ask frequent questions throughout their lessons, as doing so lets ELLs practice their new language and helps teachers assess how much of the content the ELLs understand.
Of course, questions should be tailored to each ELL's level of second language acquisition. Figure 2. By knowing the stages of language acquisition and stage-appropriate questions, you can engage students at the correct level of discourse. Asking the tiered questions that accompany the stages of acquisition is one way to help students move to the next stage.
To ensure that the student is being challenged and pushed to the next level, it is important to once in a while ask questions from the next level as well.
Although there may be an approximate time frame for each stage of language acquisition, the length of time students spend at each level will be as varied as the students themselves. As you can see from Figure 2. It is even OK to ask Preproduction students a question every so often that requires a one-word response, because we always want to transition them to the next stage.
The student Has minimal comprehension. Does not verbalize. Nods "Yes" and "No. Show me … Circle the … Where is …? Who has …? The student Has limited comprehension Produces one- or two-word responses. Uses key words and familiar phrases. Uses present-tense verbs. What …? How many …? The student Has good comprehension.
Can produce simple sentences. Makes grammar and pronunciation errors. Frequently misunderstands jokes. Why …? How …? Explain … Questions requiring phrase or short-sentence answers. The student Has excellent comprehension. Makes few grammatical errors. What would happen if …? Why do you think …? Questions requiring more than a sentence response. Decide if … Retell …. You also want to begin asking students at this stage questions that require a phrase or short sentence. Speech Emergence students should be asked to answer questions that require a short-sentence response.
It is OK to sometimes ask these students questions requiring a multiple-sentence response, but it is not OK to ask them questions requiring a pointing or one-word response. How about Intermediate and Advanced Fluency students? It is OK to ask them questions that require a lot of verbal output, but it is not OK to ask them questions requiring minimal verbal output. You can use tiered questions to include all ELLs in whole-class activities or one on one to check comprehension or content learning.
To accomplish this, you will need to know each student's stage of language acquisition. To improve her ability to ask tiered questions, a 1st grade teacher asks the school ESL teacher to demonstrate the strategy in her class during a discussion of The Three Little Pigs. For each stage of second language acquisition, the ESL teacher asks the following types of tiered questions: Preproduction: Ask questions that students can answer by pointing at pictures in the book "Show me the wolf," "Where is the house?
Early Production: Ask questions that students can answer with one or two words "Did the brick house fall down? Speech Emergence: Ask "why" and "how" questions that students can answer with short sentences "Explain why the third pig built his house out of bricks.
Intermediate Fluency: Ask "What would happen if …" and "Why do you think …" questions "What would happen if the pigs outsmarted the wolf? Turn to the sample lesson plans in Appendix 5—8 and select the one that's most appropriate for your grade level. After reading the lesson, match the sample student responses at the end to their respective stages of second language acquisition. You may be asked to share your responses with the larger group. What distinguishes low-level questions from high-level ones?
Levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. The Ramirez study of bilingual educational programs Ramirez, found that in all the language programs studied including immersion and early- and late-exit transitional programs , teachers tended to ask low-level questions.
In fact, in more than half of their interactions, students did not produce any oral language; when they did, they engaged in simple recall. You may ask yourself, "How can I possibly ask a Preproduction or Early Production student a high-level question if the most that student can do is point or give a one-word response?
We can't have ELLs stuck at the lowest levels of thinking. Have you ever seen the levels of thinking from Bloom's taxonomy aligned with the stages of second language acquisition? For some reason, many people think that students in the initial stages of acquisition can only answer low-level questions and that those in the advanced stages are more likely to answer high-level questions. However, this is not the case. As Figure 2. Appendix 1 shows an actual matrix using both the levels of thinking and the stages of second language acquisition.
English language learners at all stages of acquisition should be asked questions at all levels of thinking. We don't want them to get stuck at a knowledge level only. We want to challenge their thinking and speaking abilities. The statements on the cards for this activity in Appendix 9 are taken from a high school science class during a plant unit. The students have already acquired and integrated plant knowledge and are now ready to practice, review, and apply what they've learned.
How would you engage students across all stages of second language acquisition at all levels of thinking? Place the activity cards on the most suitable space on the game board.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication—including the drawings, graphs, illustrations, or chapters, except for brief quotations in critical reviews or articles—may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission from ASCD.
Subscribe to ASCD Express , our free email newsletter, to have practical, actionable strategies and information delivered to your email inbox twice a month. ASCD respects intellectual property rights and adheres to the laws governing them. Learn more about our permissions policy and submit your request online.
Sale Book Aug Hill and Cynthia L. Activity Complete the "stages" activity in Appendix 4. Early Production The student Has limited comprehension Produces one- or two-word responses. Speech Emergence The student Has good comprehension. Explain … Questions requiring phrase or short-sentence answers Intermediate Fluency The student Has excellent comprehension.
Questions requiring more than a sentence response Advanced Fluency The student has a near-native level of speech.
Classroom Example To improve her ability to ask tiered questions, a 1st grade teacher asks the school ESL teacher to demonstrate the strategy in her class during a discussion of The Three Little Pigs. Levels of Bloom's Taxonomy The Ramirez study of bilingual educational programs Ramirez, found that in all the language programs studied including immersion and early- and late-exit transitional programs , teachers tended to ask low-level questions.
Requesting Permission For photocopy , electronic and online access , and republication requests , go to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Enter the book title within the " Get Permission " search field. To translate this book, contact translations ascd. Ideas from the Field. Subscribe Now.
Students acquiring a second language progress through five predictable stages. Effective ELL instruction Reflects students' stages of language acquisition. Helps students move through the language acquisition levels. Engages ELLs at all stages of language acquisition in higher-level thinking activities. Anyone who has been around children who are learning to talk knows that the process happens in stages—first understanding, then one-word utterances, then two-word phrases, and so on. How quickly students progress through the stages depends on many factors, including level of formal education, family background, and length of time spent in the country.
Most users should sign in with their email address. If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in. To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above. Don't already have an Oxford Academic account? Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.
Language Editing Service. This research paper tends to focus on comparison and contrast between first and second language learning. It investigates the different factors that have inhibiting influences on the language learning process of the learners in the two different environments. There are many factors involved in this respect. The age factor is one of the vital factors that influence the progress of learners in the language learning process.
Language is the most significant aspect which makes us different from all other species. Accordingly, language acquisition is the most impressive aspect of human development both in psychological and cognitive perspective. However, all the normal human beings acquire the language they first encounter as children. Then they might learn multiple languages but those languages will always be different from the first language they acquired by being exposed to. So, it is evident that there are a lot of differences between the first language and the second language of a person.
One of the most important and fascinating aspects of human development is language acquisition. The present review summarizes some difficulties that second language learners may face to learn English. It has tried to find out factors that play an important role in the acquisition of second language.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly.
Drupal 7 module development pdf download oxford english grammar course pdf downloadReply
To browse Academia.Reply
Language acquisition does not require extensive use of conscious grammatical rules, and does not require tedious drill.Reply
Some of the characteristics of L2 acquisition show similarities with L1 acquisition, whereas others show differences. 2. Similarities between First and Second.Reply
PDF | On Jan 1, , Ingrid Gogolin published First-Language and Second-Language Learning | Find, read and cite all the research you need on.Reply