File Name: chinese politics and government power ideology and organization .zip
Since President Xi Jinping came to power in , he has consolidated his control over the infamously opaque party, with many experts calling him the most influential Chinese leader since Mao Zedong. Politics and Government. Tensions between the Communist party and the nationalist Kuomintang, its primary rival, erupted into a civil war from which the Communists emerged victorious in Around 70 percent of its nearly ninety million members are men; farmers, herdsmen, and fishermen make up roughly 30 percent of its membership.
The CCP convenes its National Party Congress NPC every five years to set major policies and choose the Central Committee, which comprises around members and alternates including ministers, senior regulatory officials, provincial leaders, and military officers. The Central Committee acts as a sort of board of directors for the CCP, and its mandate is to select the Politburo, which has twenty-five members. The Standing Committee currently has seven members, but membership has ranged from five to nine people.
Xi, who took over from Hu Jintao in , sits atop the system as general secretary. He is also the president and head of the military, exerting enormous influence in setting government policy. Party leadership succession is decided through secretive negotiations. In the reform era that followed the death of Mao and his personality cult, Deng Xiaoping steered the party from strongman rule to consensus rule or collective leadership among the elite and institutionalized the transfer of power from one leader to the next, with each president serving a maximum of two five-year terms.
These principles had dictated leadership succession since the early s. In recent decades, global events and internal strife have tested the CCP. The Tiananmen democracy riots and the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early s triggered a series of existential crises for the party that forced it to reconsider its mandate. The Soviet implosion in particular pushed the CCP examine the causes of regime collapse and institute intraparty reform to avoid a similar fate.
Today, the party has harnessed the rewards of globalization and economic development, lifting millions of its people out of poverty. Yet fears of social unrest are persistent. In the spring of , a memo named Document No. To counter these, the CCP has sought to further embed itself across layers of Chinese society and the economy. Xi has done so by silencing dissent; restricting religious groups, media organizations, human rights activists, and lawyers; detaining more than a million Muslims in the northwestern region of Xinjiang; and staking a much harder line against corruption.
Still, actual governance of China can be extremely decentralized. While Politburo members retain responsibility for dictating policies and staffing ministries, they do not manage day-to-day portfolios the way a cabinet would. Chinese provinces enjoy significant autonomy, and subprovincial officials and leaders, appointed by the central government, have almost total control over local governance.
This lack of accountability has compounded grievances over income inequality, lack of consumer protection, land grabs, human rights, food safety, and environmental issues. Forced evictions have spiked over the years as debt-laden local governments raised capital by selling seized land to developers. Activists such as Chen Guangcheng , a blind lawyer who exposed forced sterilizations, raised red flags of human rights violations stemming from local corruption.
Following consumer fury over tainted milk and meat, the central government was forced to act on long-standing concerns about the safety of food products. And though the party has demonstrated interest in addressing environmental degradation, it has also been quick to censor viral critiques of pollution, such as the documentaries Plastic China and Under the Dome , and suppress protest movements that have potential to gain widespread traction. While rapid economic growth has boosted the livelihoods of millions, the CCP must also address massive income disparity.
In , the Chinese economy grew by 6. President Donald J. Additionally, the massive accumulation of debt has some experts concerned about a looming debt crisis. The pandemic of a new coronavirus disease, COVID, presented further challenges for the Chinese economy and the party. The virus, first reported in the central city of Wuhan in December , spread rapidly throughout the country, infecting tens of thousands and forcing local and provincial governments to lock down cities, stop industrial production, and urge people to stay at home.
With economic activity halted for months, China reported its first economic contraction in more than forty years; its gross domestic product GDP dipped almost 7 percent in the first quarter of Moreover, life expectancy has increased while the birth rate has declined. As a result, broadening insurance coverage has been a major initiative for the party, with healthcare expenditures increasing from 3.
While medical insurance covers more than 90 percent of the population, coverage is often limited. It opposes efforts by the United States to strengthen its defense ties with Indo-Pacific partners, including Japan and Vietnam, and consistently protests U.
China has staked claims to contested islands in the East and South China Seas , pitting itself against Japan and several other neighbors. But Beijing has also courted its neighbors and sought to build new partnerships. Most significant, however, has been the BRI, which has built transport and commercial networks linking Asia to Africa, Europe, and beyond. Economy investigates the ways that China has changed under Xi Jinping. South Korea. Will the New U. In Brief by Scott A. Snyder March 11, Asia Program.
In Brief by Sheila A. Smith February 24, United States. Diplomatic Corps? Heads of State and Government. Public Health Threats and Pandemics. Timeline by Claire Felter March 3, Skip to main content.
It has ninety million members. Since coming to power in , President Xi Jinping has consolidated control over the party. Challenges facing the party include slowing economic growth, rising inequality, an aging population, and growing tensions with the United States.
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The PRC consists of 22 provinces excluding the claimed Taiwan Province , four municipalities , five autonomous regions and two special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau with the latter operating in a separate political systems different from the PRC. Each local Bureau or office is under the coequal authority of the local leader and the leader of the corresponding office, bureau or ministry at the next higher level. People's Congress members at the county level are elected by voters. These county-level People's Congresses have the responsibility of oversight of local government and elect members to the Provincial or Municipal in the case of independent municipalities People's Congress. The President of China is the head of state , serving as the ceremonial figurehead under National People's Congress. As a one-party state , the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party holds ultimate power and authority over state and government.
Please note: In order to keep Hive up to date and provide users with the best features, we are no longer able to fully support Internet Explorer. The site is still available to you, however some sections of the site may appear broken. We would encourage you to move to a more modern browser like Firefox, Edge or Chrome in order to experience the site fully. Out of stock. Over the past two decades, China's political reforms, open-door policy, dramatic economic growth, and increasingly assertive foreign policy have had an unprecedented regional and global impact. This introductory textbook provides students with a fundamental understanding of government and politics in China as well as the conceptual ability to explore the general patterns, impacts, and nature of continuities and changes in Chinese politics. Further, it equips students with analytical frameworks by which they can understand, analyse and evaluate the major issues in Chinese politics, including:The basic methodologies and theoretical controversies in the study of Chinese politics.
Since President Xi Jinping came to power in , he has consolidated his control over the infamously opaque party, with many experts calling him the most influential Chinese leader since Mao Zedong. Politics and Government. Tensions between the Communist party and the nationalist Kuomintang, its primary rival, erupted into a civil war from which the Communists emerged victorious in Around 70 percent of its nearly ninety million members are men; farmers, herdsmen, and fishermen make up roughly 30 percent of its membership. The CCP convenes its National Party Congress NPC every five years to set major policies and choose the Central Committee, which comprises around members and alternates including ministers, senior regulatory officials, provincial leaders, and military officers. The Central Committee acts as a sort of board of directors for the CCP, and its mandate is to select the Politburo, which has twenty-five members. The Standing Committee currently has seven members, but membership has ranged from five to nine people.
Over the past two decades, China's political reforms, open-door policy, dramatic economic growth, and increasingly assertive foreign policy have had an unprec.
In a state capitalist country such as China, an important influence on company reporting is the government, which can influence company decision-making. The nature and impact of how the Chinese government uses its symbolic power to promote corporate environmental reporting CER have been under-studied, and therefore, this paper aims to address this gap in the literature by investigating the various strategies the Chinese government uses to influence CER and how political ideology plays a key role. This study uses discourse analysis to examine the annual reports and corporate social responsibility CSR reports from seven Chinese companies between and And the data analysis presented is informed by Bourdieu's conceptualisation of symbolic power. The Chinese government, through exercising the symbolic power, manages to build consensus, so that the Chinese government's political ideology becomes the habitus which is deeply embedded in the companies' perception of practices.
The ideology of the Chinese Communist Party has undergone dramatic changes throughout the years, especially during Deng Xiaoping 's leadership and now Xi Jinping 's leadership.Reply
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of the Chinese political system, such as ideology, politics, law, society,. economy, and foreign policy. • The impact of power, ideology, and organization on different.Reply