list of alloys and their composition pdf

List of alloys and their composition pdf

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What is Stainless Steel?

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The composition of some common alloys

Properties of steel

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What is Stainless Steel?

Steel , alloy of iron and carbon in which the carbon content ranges up to 2 percent with a higher carbon content, the material is defined as cast iron. In addition, the tools required to build and manufacture such articles are also made of steel. For a list of steel production by country, see below World steel production. The main reasons for the popularity of steel are the relatively low cost of making, forming, and processing it, the abundance of its two raw materials iron ore and scrap , and its unparalleled range of mechanical properties.

The major component of steel is iron, a metal that in its pure state is not much harder than copper. Omitting very extreme cases, iron in its solid state is, like all other metals, polycrystalline—that is, it consists of many crystals that join one another on their boundaries. A crystal is a well-ordered arrangement of atoms that can best be pictured as spheres touching one another. They are ordered in planes, called lattices, which penetrate one another in specific ways.

For iron, the lattice arrangement can best be visualized by a unit cube with eight iron atoms at its corners. Important for the uniqueness of steel is the allotropy of iron—that is, its existence in two crystalline forms.

In the body-centred cubic bcc arrangement, there is an additional iron atom in the centre of each cube. In the face-centred cubic fcc arrangement, there is one additional iron atom at the centre of each of the six faces of the unit cube.

It is significant that the sides of the face-centred cube, or the distances between neighbouring lattices in the fcc arrangement, are about 25 percent larger than in the bcc arrangement; this means that there is more space in the fcc than in the bcc structure to keep foreign i.

Referred to as ferrite , iron in its bcc formation is also called alpha iron in the lower temperature range and delta iron in the higher temperature zone. The allotropic behaviour of iron is retained with few exceptions in steel, even when the alloy contains considerable amounts of other elements. There is also the term beta iron, which refers not to mechanical properties but rather to the strong magnetic characteristics of iron.

In its pure form, iron is soft and generally not useful as an engineering material; the principal method of strengthening it and converting it into steel is by adding small amounts of carbon.

In solid steel, carbon is generally found in two forms. Either it is in solid solution in austenite and ferrite or it is found as a carbide. The carbide form can be iron carbide Fe 3 C, known as cementite , or it can be a carbide of an alloying element such as titanium.

On the other hand, in gray iron, carbon appears as flakes or clusters of graphite , owing to the presence of silicon , which suppresses carbide formation. The effects of carbon are best illustrated by an iron-carbon equilibrium diagram. The A-B-C line represents the liquidus points i. The A-B-C line indicates that solidification temperatures decrease as the carbon content of an iron melt is increased. This explains why gray iron, which contains more than 2 percent carbon, is processed at much lower temperatures than steel.

Molten steel containing, for example, a carbon content of 0. From this point down, the iron crystals are all in an austenitic— i. This microstructure is called pearlite , and the change is called the eutectoidic transformation. Pearlite has a diamond pyramid hardness DPH of approximately kilograms-force per square millimetre , pounds per square inch , compared with a DPH of 70 kilograms-force per square millimetre for pure iron.

Cooling steel with a lower carbon content e. Steel with more than 0. Steel Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Home Technology Industry Steel metallurgy. Print print Print. Table Of Contents.

While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. Academia - Classification of Steel. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Wondris See All Contributors Metallurgical consultant.

See Article History. Molten steel being poured into a ladle from an electric arc furnace, s. Iron ore is one of the most abundant elements on Earth, and one of its primary uses is in the production of steel. When combined with carbon, iron changes character completely and becomes the alloy steel. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content.

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In the present work, a new liquid metal model Wulff cluster model which has been proved to describe the structures of pure metal melts has been extended to binary homogeneous alloy melts Cu—Ni and Ag—Au. The shapes of the nano-particles are determined by surface energies of different families of crystal planes, calculated by density functional theory DFT , whereas the size was given by the pair distribution function PDF g r which was converted from experimental high-temperature X-ray diffraction HTXRD. We demonstrated that the simulated X-ray diffraction XRD curves from present models match the experimental results quite well at high temperatures above the liquid—solid two-phase region, including not only the position and width of the peaks but also the relative intensity of the first and second peaks. Moreover, when the temperature is near the liquid—solid two-phase region, our model also fits the experimental strength curve well after modification using the solid XRD pattern of a relatively high melting point metal instead of its nano-particle. The agreement indicates the nucleation processes in homogeneous alloy melts. If you are not the author of this article and you wish to reproduce material from it in a third party non-RSC publication you must formally request permission using Copyright Clearance Center. Go to our Instructions for using Copyright Clearance Center page for details.


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The composition of some common alloys

These are preferred to pure aluminium for constructional purposes. They are hard and strong. They contain copper, silicon, magnesium, manganese, iron and nickel in various combinations. This is also known as the Alclad and it is duralumin with a thin coating of pure aluminium. The thickness of layer of pure aluminium is about 5 per cent of thickness of core and such a layer prevents corrosion due to salt water.

Zinc Alloys: Properties, Production, Processing and Applications

Home Stainless What is Stainless Steel? Stainless steel is also environmentally neutral and inert, and its longevity ensures it meets the needs of sustainable construction.

Properties of steel

Alloys are metallic compounds made up of one metal and one or more metal or non-metal elements. Examples of common alloys:. Commercial metal alloys attempt to combine these beneficial properties in order to create metals more useful for particular applications than any of their component elements. Precise properties of new alloys are difficult to calculate because elements do not just combine to become a sum of the parts. They form through chemical interactions, which depend upon component parts and specific production methods. As a result, much testing is required in the development of new metal alloys. Melting temperature is a key factor in alloying metals.

An alloy is a mixture of two or more metals. Some familiar examples of alloys include brass, bronze, pewter, cast and wrought iron, steel, coin metals, and solder pronounced SOD-der; a substance used to join other metallic surfaces together. Alloys are usually synthetic materials, developed by scientists for special purposes.

An Alloy is a homogeneous mixture i.

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Steel , alloy of iron and carbon in which the carbon content ranges up to 2 percent with a higher carbon content, the material is defined as cast iron. In addition, the tools required to build and manufacture such articles are also made of steel. For a list of steel production by country, see below World steel production. The main reasons for the popularity of steel are the relatively low cost of making, forming, and processing it, the abundance of its two raw materials iron ore and scrap , and its unparalleled range of mechanical properties. The major component of steel is iron, a metal that in its pure state is not much harder than copper. Omitting very extreme cases, iron in its solid state is, like all other metals, polycrystalline—that is, it consists of many crystals that join one another on their boundaries. A crystal is a well-ordered arrangement of atoms that can best be pictured as spheres touching one another.

This is a list of named alloys grouped alphabetically by base metal. Within these headings, the alloys are also grouped alphabetically. Some of the main alloying elements are optionally listed after the alloy names. Most iron alloys are steels , with carbon as a major alloying element. SmCo cobalt ; used for permanent magnets in guitar pickups, headphones, satellite transponders, etc.

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