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How teachers manage their classrooms is an important part of achieving an effective learning environment. Educators know that all students learn differently, and choosing the right instructional style can mitigate behavioral issues and make good instruction possible.
While classroom management theory is constantly evolving, there are three key theorists who stand out when it comes to modern education. Throughout the 20 th and 21 st centuries, experts like B.
Skinner, William Glasser and Alfie Kohn revolutionized the ways that teachers deliver education. Understanding their theories can help educators define their own classroom management methods and make decisions about how to best approach interactions with students.
His work is based upon the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior. When a stimulus-response S-R pattern is rewarded, the individual is conditioned to respond similarly in the future. This could include praise, good grades, a reward or even a feeling of accomplishment.
Of course, negative reinforcement occurs when a stimulus results in increased response when it is withdrawn. This is why information is presented in small amounts. Responses can be reinforced, and reinforcement will be applied to similar stimuli. When applied to programmed instruction, the following should occur:. In general, this theory states that all we do is behave. Glasser suggests that almost all behavior is chosen, and we are driven by genetics to satisfy five basic needs: survival, love and belonging, power, freedom and fun.
In choice theory, the most important need is love and belonging because connectedness with others is required as a basis in satisfying all other needs. The classroom should therefore be a needs-satisfying place for students. It has been utilized in schools across the globe and has changed the ways that teachers deliver instruction.
First, Glasser identifies teachers as managers who need to work effectively if they want to successfully teach their students. The role of teachers as managers requires them to guide students in understanding that working hard and being obedient is worth it and will have a positive influence on their lives.
Teachers can achieve this through developing positive relationships with students and creating active, relevant learning experiences that enable students to demonstrate mastery and success. This allows learning to increase while diminishing disruption. There are three common characteristics of classrooms and schools that apply choice theory:. Kohn maintains that societies based on extrinsic motivation always become inefficient over time.
He questions the hierarchical structures at work in mainstream education. He argues that positive enforcement only encourages students to seek out more positive enforcement, rather than truly learn.
Because of this, he argues that standards should be kept very minimal and is critical of standardized testing. Kohn also argues that a strict curriculum and homework are counterintuitive to student needs. When it comes to classroom management, Kohn believes that most teachers rely too heavily on extrinsic motivation rather than more intrinsic factors. In general, Kohn believes that there is too much emphasis on achievement rather than the learning process.
He emphasizes that not all students learn at the same pace, and standards do not take this into account. In general, Kohn believes in classrooms where the student is at the center of everything.
Ideally, such a classroom would feature:. When educators are able to focus on classroom organization as a means of behavior management, they achieve better results for students. If you are interested in education topics like this, consider the online Master of Education from Husson University. Graduate-level education is ideal for teachers looking to advance their career and become leaders in the classroom and beyond. You can learn more about this fully online program here. Use these five classroom management apps, tools, and resources to minimize classroom management issues and maximize instructional […].
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As a second-year teacher, Mandrel Epps is showing a lot of promise, but he still has some rough edges. He works very hard to develop engaging lessons and accompanying materials. Another teacher on his grade level said that if she shares an activity with him, he gives it back with some additional, and often better, twists. Mandrel showed a lot of courage coming back to teach after the tough first year when he had 12 of the most challenging students in the grade level placed in his classroom. Mandrel's students say they like him and he makes learning interesting, but sometimes they also take advantage of him. It is as if he has a jigsaw box of puzzle pieces, but he cannot get all the pieces to fit together.
To inhibit the spread of the Covid pandemic, governments around the world shut down schools for several months during the first half of It was clearly expected early on that the closures would cause major interruptions to student learning. But what did the children actually do during the school closures? Who was particularly affected? And how did parents and schools compensate for the closures?
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Think of [cybersecurity] more as safety and security in roads and cars. This is compounded by the fact that hacks are becoming commonplace due to the rise of mobile usage and internet of things, as well as the growing ecosystem of cybercriminals. This article outlines the types of cybercriminals, cybercrime tactics, and contributing factors.
The Cisco ACI fabric consists of discrete components that operate as routers and switches, but it is provisioned and monitored as a single entity. This document describes how to implement a fabric such as the one depicted in Figure 1. Cisco ACI building blocks. A Cisco ACI fabric can be built using a variety of hardware platforms. The choice depends on the following criteria:.
Через неделю Сьюзан и еще шестерых пригласили. Сьюзан заколебалась, но все же поехала. По приезде группу сразу же разделили. Все они подверглись проверке на полиграф-машине, иными словами - на детекторе лжи: были тщательно проверены их родственники, изучены особенности почерка, и с каждым провели множество собеседований на всевозможные темы, включая сексуальную ориентацию и соответствующие предпочтения. Когда интервьюер спросил у Сьюзан, не занималась ли она сексом с животными, она с трудом удержалась, чтобы не выбежать из кабинета, но, так или иначе, верх взяли любопытство, перспектива работы на самом острие теории кодирования, возможность попасть во Дворец головоломок и стать членом наиболее секретного клуба в мире - Агентства национальной безопасности. Беккер внимательно слушал ее рассказ.
Ее мысли были прерваны внезапным звуковым сигналом входной двери Третьего узла. Стратмор чуть ли не вбежал в комнату. - Сьюзан, - сказал он, - только что позвонил Дэвид. Он задерживается. ГЛАВА 16 - Кольцо? - не веря своим ушам, переспросила Сьюзан. - С руки Танкадо исчезло кольцо. - Да.
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