File Name: research paper on marriage and divorce .zip
Pediatric Nursing, Psychiatric and Surgical Issues.
As a result the impact of divorce on child wellbeing has been the subject of research for several decades, and has long been viewed as the cause of a range of serious and enduring behavioral and emotional problems in children and adolescents Kelly and Emery, Parents used to stay longer in marriage for the interest of their children's welfare even if they faced marital problems. But now so many couples end their marriage even for a simple reason and become single parents.
No matter how single parent deals with this challenge, the consequences are far weightier as compared to children of parents living together Gardner Divorce affects the couple who is ending their marriage, and affects their children as well. In US approximately one million children are affected by divorce each year U. Census Bureau, These problems do not diminish overtime and continue throughout adolescence and into adulthood Kim, When we come to Africa, according to Monama , in about 52 percent of African urban parents are single.
Data released by Statistics South Africa revealed a steady increase in the divorce rate from to However, this has begun to decrease, with the last reported rates being divorces per married couples in Locoh, In South Africa it's reality that one out of every two marriages ends in divorce Collins, These are frightening statistics not only because it points to the breakdown of the family nucleus, but also because it means that 50 percent of young people come from broken homes.
According to statistics of South Africa, , divorces were recorded in In addition, the same study stated that two -third of the women divorce within the first five years of marriage p. This review paper is intended to provide brief information about the consequence of divorce on families' life.
Rationale of ReviewDivorce has negative impact on the divorcees and their children socially, economically and psychologically. There is no organization aimed at provision of services for individuals and couples in the process of pre marriage, divorce and remarriage except few attempts by religious institutions.
Marriage and divorce are social issues as well as private concerns. The success and failure of our marriage have consequences beyond our personal lives. Individuals at the crossroads of divorce help not only just themselves and their families but also their neighborhoods, communities, and nation when they are able to repair their relationships and establish a healthy, stable marriage Tizita, Divorce has become a serious problem; challenging the establishment of the family in a routine manner and causing severe impacts on the emotional and mental health of the individual especially, women.
In Ethiopia parents in general provide affections and care for their children as much as possible. However when divorce happen parents preoccupied by their own problem so that the adolescents feel alone and they faced a lot of problem which may affect their personality as well as their self-esteem. The rising rate of divorce in Ethiopia Wondimu, , means that many children are affected by the trauma of divorce.
Objective of review 1. General objectiveThe basic purpose of this of this review is to provide detail information about the effect of divorce on families' life.
Review on the effects of divorce on family lifeHere below the effect of divorce were clearly 2. The effect of divorce on children According to Adamu and temesgen , Children dropout schools, engage in addiction, commit sex before marriage and develop delinquent behavior in the community they live in. Crimes, theft and immoral acts of conduct stem from divorced families. Shahram, Ali and Ghoobad cited in Adamu and temesgen , identified the following points as possible consequences of divorce on children's psychological and social phenomena.
These are: a Anti-social behavior and delinquency in children and adolescents, b Prostitution, especially in the poverty and ignorance c Abuse of women, men and children and using children in drug distribution and other illegal activities, d Aggression and maladjustment in children, and stray away from their home, e Academic failure, suicidal husband or wife or children, f Reduction in the desire to marry other people, especially children of divorced families, and g Children lose their confidence and do not imagine good future.
The consequences of divorce for children have been extensively studied in Western nations. Outcomes examined include, but are not limited to, academic achievement, health, behavioral problems, and emotional well-being. Researchers have generally found that divorce has a deleterious effect on children's outcomes Amato Amato , Amato and Keith b;Frisco, Muller and Frank ;Furstenberg and Kiernan ;Sun and Li Furthermore, the consequences of divorce are long-lasting, extending into adulthood.
Adults whose parents are divorced have lower educational attainment, greater levels of depression, lower income levels, worse physical health, and a higher likelihood of ever being divorced Amato and DeBoer ;Amato and Sobolewski ;Wolfinger et al. It is unclear to what extent the results of these studies are applicable for children living in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is quite possible that divorce can affect children similarly, regardless of their country of residence. Short term effects.
For the 2 year period immediately following divorce, most children show some adjustment problems. Boys tend to display conduct problems and girls tend to experience emotional problems. Medium term effects. The impact of divorce on children between the 3rd and 10th year following divorce may be statistically expressed in two ways: 1 as differences between the average or mean level of well-being or maladjustment of children of divorce compared with the mean level of well-being or maladjustment in intact families; 2 as the percentage of children of divorce who show adjustment difficulties.
The mean level of maladjustment has consistently been found to be worse for children of divorce in comparison with those from intact families on a variety of measures of adjustment including conduct difficulties, emotional problems, academic performance, self-esteem and relationships with parents.
This has led to the erroneous conclusion by some interpreters of the literature that divorce always has a negative effect on children. Long term effects. In adult life a small proportion of individuals from families where divorce has occurred have difficulty making and maintaining stable marital relationships, have psychological adjustment difficulties and attain a lower socio-economic level in comparison with adults who have grown up in intact families.
Divorce on ParentsDivorce results different consequences on the economic wellbeing of men and women. Three years after the failure of their marriages, divorced women experience greater adversity than their married peers. During the first year after divorce, custodial mothers were more anxious, depressed, angry, and self-doubting than were married mothers. They also showed comparatively less affection to their children, communicated less with them, punished them more, and were more inconsistent in their use of discipline.
In a similar way, Kotwal and Prabhakar found that divorced mothers experienced greater number of stressful events such as demotions, layoffs, accidents, critical illnesses and problems with their own parents than did married women. Divorced mothers are also trapped in a vicious cycle of financial problems and other stressful life events. The results revealed that women tend to suffer from a feeling of rootlessness and lack of identity after divorce.
This is especially true of women whose identity was formerly associated with that of their husbands. Studies reveal that most divorced women in Ethiopia are house wives and these divorced women gain custody of children without child support Semhal, Serkalem also studied the causes and the socioeconomic impacts of divorce on women and their children and concluded that divorced women in Ethiopia are economically weak and usually engage in informal sectors like selling home made products Tella, Arekie, Injera, etc , collecting wood and retailing activities after divorce.
This makes their lives miserable. These single mothers are usually stressed. Serkalem"s finding also revealed that the social relationship of divorced women does not enable them to get the moral and economical support they need.
Life changes Divorce leads custodial parents to experience major changes in the their lives including a change in residential arrangements, economic disadvantage, loneliness associated with social network changes, and role strain associated with the task overload that results from having to care for children and work outside the home.
Health Changes in divorced couples residential arrangements, economic status, social networks and role demands lead to deterioration in physical and mental health for the majority of individuals immediately following separation. However, for most people these health problems abate within two years of the divorce.
Mood Swings-Both men and women suffer extreme emotional liability in the period leading up to separation and for the two year post-separation period.
An awareness of the opportunities for a new way of life and escape from the emotional pain of chronic marital discord both lead to periods of elation. The loss of a familiar way of life, the loss of a longstanding partner and a fear that alone one may not meet the extraordinary challenges that go with being a single person or a single parent commonly are associated with episodes of depressed mood.
Identity Problems-For women in particular, separation is associated with a crisis of identity. Prior to separation many women define themselves in terms of their husbands or their children. Also women may rely on their husbands to develop a social network of friends. After separation, women who have relied on their husbands for self-definition find that they experience confusion about their identity.
They have to redefine their self-concept in terms of their own role and develop their own social network. Women who have jobs outside the home experience fewer identity problems in the aftermath of divorce. Even if individuals pass through the most unhappy and turbulent situation, there are also moments that help them to see the positive sides of marital breakup.
As research findings show, such individuals become more optimistic about their lives in the aftermath of divorce Boon, There are various factors that make the disintegration of marital union favorable for individuals who undergo through the divorce process which enable them maintain their well-being. According to Boon , although the negative aspects of divorce for women have been overemphasized, divorce also has beneficial effects particularly if their marriage was abusive and violent that provides a solution to escape from a dissatisfying and abusive marriage.
Likewise, it is shown that individuals after marital disintegration eventually feel relief from a violent relationship. This is because their marital breakup stops the tension and the emotional strain they used to experience in their offensive marriage. Hence, the ending of problematic relationships leads to an improvement in individuals" psychological and physiological wellbeing Gomez, n. In addition, studies have revealed that most women in the aftermath of marital disruption achieve enhanced personal growth that leads to an important psychological functioning.
Some divorced women become fearless and spirited as they become released and are able to use the situation to start an important stage of emotional growth. Similarly, Writer pointed out that divorce allows women to interact with the society freely and to raise their children in their own ways without being dictated by their husbands. Furthermore, in consequence of the divorce, women are less occupied to their husbands" disposition and needs and they got the freedom to spend time alone in their own space.
Studies also indicate that divorced women report greater self-rule in their lives than married persons Boon, Moreover, women following divorce are able to experience their sense of autonomy that make them free from unwanted relationships and allows them to heal from their grievances and to move on with their lives as a result of the ending of marital relationship.
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We document key facts about marriage and divorce, comparing trends through the While it will take several more decades for the long-term fate of recent mimeo, University of Chicago. ars2018.org~pchiappo/wp/divrevsh.pdf.
Globally, divorce is a common phenomenon in couples' marital life.
Psychological and Emotional Aspects of Divorce. This article summarizes many of the common psychological and emotional effects divorce has on men, women and children. The divorce rate in the United States is the highest in the world. Over fifty percent of marriages end in divorce. Welcome to the majority. Divorce Effects and Prevalence B.
Are couples with daughters more likely to divorce than couples with sons? Using Dutch registry and U. These age-specific results run counter to explanations involving overarching, time-invariant preferences for sons and sex-selection into live birth.
The profiles draw on recently released, national data sources to provide the most up to date information about U. Manning and Lisa Carlson. Allred and Valerie J. Schweizer and Karen Benjamin Guzzo. Payne and Wendy D.
Divorces have emerged as a very likely outcome of marriages today, questioning the truth of the saying. The divorce rates among young couples are increasing progressively.
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Divorce also known as dissolution of marriage , is the process of terminating a marriage or marital union.Reply